With the distinction of being one of the largest grocery store chains in the United States, and a store that has begun expansion into other countries around the world, one would expect such a company to carry goods from the largest food manufacturers as well. However, at Whole Foods Market, chocolate or candy from the “Big 5” chocolate companies was entirely missing, and the candy shelves were instead stocked with the products of smaller companies. These smaller companies are part of a new “bean to bar” trend in the United States, where chocolate bars are often organic and produced in much smaller amounts. These companies often take part in Fair Trade Programs, which help many people in the chocolate supply chain but is also intended to appeal to the emotions of consumers. Apart from the three candy displays many other foods, drinks, and supplements were chocolate flavored, representative of a much larger phenomenon in America which sees the vast majority of the population enamored with the taste of chocolate. At the Star Market in Back Bay less than a five minute bike ride away, candy from Hershey’s, Mars, Nestle, Cadbury, and Ferrero can all be found in abundance and at a far lower price than candy at Whole Foods. At the Symphony Hall Whole Foods Market in Boston, the chocolate shelves were filled with small to mid-size chocolate makers, and lacks entirely representation of the “Big 5” chocolate companies. This represents a greater trend in America which has seen smaller “bean to bar” chocolate companies become more popular with trendy consumers. Part of this movement involves the participation in many fair trade, organic, non-GMO and other programs by chocolate companies in part in an attempt to appeal to the emotions of the consumer. However, with people willing to pay the higher prices these products command, with many other non-candy items being flavored by chocolate, and with an abundance of large manufacturer chocolate found at Star Market it is clear that Americans still very much love chocolate.
Not being someone who regularly shops at Whole Foods, upon entering the store to inspect its chocolate selection I was fully expecting to see Hershey’s Bars, Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups, and Milky Way Bars but instead, there was not a single one of the “Big 5” chocolate companies’ products in the store. For decades Hershey’s, Nestle, Ferrero, Cadbury, and Mars have dominated the American chocolate market creating cheap but subpar confections which were mass produced. This resulted in chocolate selection being very homogenous, with large batches of chocolate produced from large amounts multiple-origin cacao being normal operating practice for the majority of chocolate companies. Although these companies still dominate the U.S. chocolate market, their absence from one of America’s largest supermarkets indicates a change taking place, away from these large manufacturers. Filling this gap left in the market is an increasing number of “bean to bar” chocolate companies. “Bean to bar” companies are a relatively new phenomenon, in which owners of the company have far more control over all production process than at most chocolate companies. Contrary to the “Big 5”, these owners often personally inspect all ingredients and machines involved in the chocolate making process which ensures a finer quality product. Many of these companies also visit cacao farms, or otherwise attempt to ensure farmers and other workers are treated fairly and compensated fairly, as they may be exploited in the mostly third-world countries where cacao is grown. In the case study “Chocolate and Slavery: Child Labor in Cote D’Ivoire” by Samlanchith Chanthavong the child labor issue in the leading producer of cacao, The Ivory Coast, is examined and indicates that there is a very severe crisis in the labor behind the chocolate market (Chonthavong 2002). The fair trade programs chocolate companies participate in are crucial to helping stop this exploitation.
Over the past decade, Americans have come to understand that our country has an issue with obesity, and as a result many consumers choose to buy healthier foods with less sugar, and often with organic or more natural ingredients. These consumers still seek to eat great tasting foods but like to know that they were made with natural ingredients and if possible the origin of those ingredients. This trend is seen on the candy shelves of Whole Foods with companies such as Taza, Theo, and Pure7 who all produce chocolate with very few, all-natural ingredients and with a far higher cacao content than mainstream chocolate bars. In “The True History of Chocolate,” by Sophie and Michael Coe, the story of one such company called Rain Republic is analyzed and shows the ideas behind these companies, the many challenges they face, and the positive impact they have. The company’s founder Josh Sermos began as a cacao and coffee buyer in Guatemala, and began learning everything he could about chocolate. After purchasing the expensive and hard to find equipment necessary to make chocolate, like most small companies Sermos had trouble making the right bar as many in the chocolate industry are very secretive. However, after several years he learned how to produce high quality bars, and by working directly with farmers and other workers, he was able to deliver a delicious product and a safe supply chain(Coe & Coe 1996). This story is very similar to local Boston Company Taza chocolate, whose owner became fascinated witch chocolate after moving to Mexico, and who works very hard with farmers to ensure they are fairly compensated.
Simultaneously, a growing number of consumers are also becoming concerned with the supply chain of the products they purchase to make sure all workers in this chain are treated and compensated fairly. Stemming from a seemingly endless myriad of horror stories related to the exploitation of third world workers and child slavery (something commonly associated with the chocolate industry for centuries), the not so distant history of widespread slavery, and a lack of worker’s rights around the developing world all help to create and increase the empathy some American consumers have for such people. Partly due to these reasons organizations such as Fair Trade USA were formed, who guarantee fair compensation for all workers they do business with. Once a Fair Trade
Certified Company, businesses are allowed to display the Fair Trade Seal on their products, which will appeal to this concerned customer base. In response to this trend and several issues some have with the fair trade organization, many companies such as Taza Chocolate form their own fair trade organizations, or join already existing organizations which catalyzes the Fair Trade movement. This, combined with the knowledge of where products are grown and the terroir of the product give the consumer a connection to that location, as well as the worker because the consumer also knows the worker is fairly treated and compensated.
During the past several years, some companies have realized this connection is what consumers desire and have marketed their chocolate accordingly. This is achieved through the separation of cacao by the location of origin, and only using one specific crop of cacao creating an “Ivorian” or “Venezuelan” bar, or wherever that specific cacao is from. This is conveyed to the consumer using the bar’s wrapper, indicating the source of that particular chocolate’s cacao. This is often combined with artwork representative of that location. In Bill Nesto’s “Discovering Terroir in the World of Chocolate,” he discusses the realities of
chocolate terroir as he sees them: although the great distance between cacao farms and chocolate factories as well as the processes which yield chocolate from cacao threaten the chocolate’s terroir, he concludes that “The more control man has over the entire chain of production from plant to product, the better man can pre-serve terroir.” He also concludes that the term terroir can indeed be applied to chocolate companies who have complete control over all materials and processes (and for him companies where production facilities are very close to farms) (Nesto 2010). This trend is seen in other parts of the food industry such as the coffee industry, where single origin coffee is growing steadily in popularity, much in the same way as chocolate. Some chocolate bars in addition to some type of fair trade certification will also have a short testimonial, biography and/or picture of a worker in their supply chain, creating an even deeper connection. The connection is finalized by the terroir of the chocolate bar. Terroir is the combination of factors including soil, sunlight, and climate that give foods their own distinct flavors. Using single origin cacao and making chocolate in small batches allows the consumer to taste and experience the subtle flavors or a specific region in a way that a chocolate bar made with mixed-origin cacao, such as a Hershey’s bar, does not allow.
While this new small batch chocolate trend has interested customers in chocolate in a new way by using terroir, America’s love of chocolate is long entrenched and can be observed all throughout the Whole Foods Market. First, although there are only three displays of chocolate bars, the quality of those bars is very high and the displays are placed strategically around the store to catch the eye of someone who perhaps did not come into the store to buy chocolate. This is a strategy used in supermarkets across the U.S. in response to chocolate being something Americans will purchase on an impulse for themselves, rather than only as a gift for others (as is largely the custom in Asian markets). As a result, chocolate and chocolate confections can also be found at each cash register in Whole Foods. Besides chocolate bars, many other products are chocolate flavored and chocolate can be found in these products all throughout the store.
Even in the health supplement aisle, products flavored with chocolate can be found in abundance. In that aisle many energy bars, nutrition bars, nutrition shakes, and other products are chocolate flavored, or contain chocolate chips. Chocolate also sees heavy representation in the desert selection at Whole Foods. In the baking aisle chocolate chips, powder, syrup, baking chocolate and other products as well as mixes for brownies, cakes etc. allow customers to enjoy chocolate in desert that they can make at home. At the market’s bakery, customers can purchase a variety of pre-made chocolate desserts and confections from chocolate cakes to chocolate truffles. Even items such as chocolate milk, chocolate chip waffles, chocolate muffins, chocolate cereal, chocolate pastries and many other breakfast foods allow one to enjoy chocolate from the first thing they eat in the morning to the last thing they eat at night. With more chocolate flavored products or products containing chocolate than I can note after multiple visits to the store it is very clear that American consumers love chocolate and that the medium of enjoyment is much more diverse than only a chocolate bar.
In contrast to the chocolate selection at Whole Foods, the selection at Star Market in Boston’s Back Bay reaffirms the domination of the American chocolate market by the “Big 5” chocolate companies. Found on the shelves are representatives from all five companies, and at a price that is far lower than most chocolate at Whole Foods. At whole foods, I purchased two chocolate bars for a combined 5.7 ounces and a combined $9.49, while at Star Market if I wanted to I could have purchased four Hershey’s Almond Chocolate bars for a combined 27.2 ounces and a combined $8.80-a very stark contrast (Whole Foods also carries Mast Brothers chocolate which is $9.99 for 2.5 oz).
There is also a much larger amount of chocolate overall in Star Market, showing perhaps that outside of the organic food world chocolate is bought in greater quantities, possibly because the supply is much higher (because most chocolate is not organic). Despite this large-manufacturer domination, Star Market also has a natural foods section with a limited selection of small bean to bar options available to customers, most of which can also be found at whole foods (Divine, Theo, Chocolove, Lake Champlain Chocolates etc). In Julie Guthman’s article “Fast food/organic food: reflexive tastes and the making of ‘yuppie chow’” she analyzes the early “ethical eating” countertrend that led to organic food and its opposition to fast food and manufactured food (Guthman 2002). These movements have expanded greatly and now, most supermarkets have at least one aisle of only organic products, and have many other products throughout the store which bear the USDA Organic seal. The biggest similarities between the two stores are the overwhelming presence of chocolate across multiple product types, and the placement of chocolate near registers which shows America’s deep infatuation with chocolate. The selection at Star Market also helps to put the selection at Whole Foods in Context: although the bean to bar trend is gaining a foothold in the U.S. marketplace, the shelves at mainstream stores and the American chocolate market are still dominated by large manufacturers.
At Symphony Hall Whole Foods Market in Boston, the lack of large manufacturer and inclusion of bean to bar chocolate companies are part of an organic trend taking place in the United States. Part of this movement involves the participation by companies in fair trade organizations, and with an increased focus on single origin crops in an attempt to experience the terroir of specific regions. However, the chocolate selection at Star Market in Boston’s Back Bay reaffirms the domination of the American Chocolate Market by the “Big 5” chocolate companies. Across both stores, the incredibly large amount of other non-candy products that are chocolate flavored or contain chocolate show that America is still very much in love with chocolate, and that chocolate permeates almost all aspects of the American food industry.
Chanthavong, Samlanchith. “Chocolate and Slavery: Child Labor in Cote D’Ivoire.” TED Case Studies 664 (2002). Print.
Coe, Sophie D., and Michael D. Coe. The True History of Chocolate. 3rd ed. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1996. Print.
Guthman, Julie. “Fast Food/organic Food: Reflexive Tastes and the Making of ‘yuppie Chow”” Social & Cultural Geography 1 (2003): 45 — 58. Print.
Nesto, Bill. “Discovering Terroir in the World of Chocolate.” Gastronomica 10.1 (2010): 131-35. Print.
Cullen, Matt. “Hershey’s in Bulk”. 2015.
Cullen, Matt. “Mast Brothers”. 2015.
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