To study the history of chocolate in Europe since the 17th century is to study the socioeconomic climate of the time throughout Europe. The introduction of chocolate to the European continent occurred via the Spanish conquistadors who discovered the cacao beans and the chocolate drink made from these beans when they interacted with the indigenous peoples. It is believed that in 1544 Europe got their first taste of chocolate prepared in this way when the conquistadors reported back to the Spanish court with a delegation of Kekchi Mayan Indians who bore gifts for their conquerors, including beaten chocolate (Presilla, 24). From the Spanish court, chocolate made its way into the lives of the elites in Spain, England and France, as well as other European countries, before becoming the staple commodity widely available to all social classes that it has become today. Although the nations of Spain, England and France were distinct and undergoing different social and political climates during the time of the arrival of chocolate in the Old World, the history of chocolate consumption in these countries does share the commonality that in both chocolate began as a luxury affordable only to those of greater means before it became the widely accessible commodity it is known as today.
Mayan vase from Chama. Source: The New Taste of Chocolate, Revised by Marcela E. Presilla
The above image is of a Maya vase from Chama, a region of Guatemala in which cacao is harvested, and shows a chieftain like that of the Kekchi Mayans being carried in a hammock, as was the chief of the Kekchi when he first introduced chocolate to Philip II of Spain.
Spain was one of several European countries to be impacted by the arrival of chocolate from the New World. Although accounts vary as to how it got to Spain, it is known for certain that by the first half of the seventeenth century the same chocolate that the Spanish creole of Mexico were drinking had integrated into the Spanish Court (Coe, 131). The way that it was consumed, however, was much more regal than it had been in present-day Mexico. As it was coveted primarily by the Spanish royals, the way in which this chocolate was consumed became more refined over time. In the mid-17th century the viceroy of Peru, Marques de Mancera invented a device to prevent ladies from spilling their chocolate onto their finery; The mancerina featured a silver saucer with a large ring in the middle into which a small cup would fit snugly and offered a solution for those noble Spaniards who had the luxury of owning valuable clothing worth protecting from chocolate (Coe, 135). In fact, chocolate was so commonplace to these Spanish elites that around 1680 it was common to serve it and other sweets to officials during the public executions of the Spanish Inquisition (Snodgrass, 207). Cosimo de’ Medici of Spain, who later became Grand Duke of Tuscany, was also known to consume chocolate liberally during the public and grand events of the Spanish nobility of Baroque Spain, including while watching a bullfight with the Spanish king, and earned himself a reputation as a “chocoholic” resultantly (Coe, 135).
The Mancerina. Source: http://www.ascasonline.org/newsGENNA104.html
The origin of chocolate in France is not known with certainty. But its association with nobility was not very different in France than it was in Spain. In Louis XIV’s decadent Palace of Versailles chocolate was a staple served at all public events hosted for the French elite. It wasn’t until the King’s wife died and he married the conservative Madame de Maintenon that the ruler became thrifty and consumption of chocolate in the palace ended (Coe, 156). Like the Spanish, the French had appropriated special vessels for serving chocolate. The chocolatiere, a long vessel with a spout, hinged lid and a straight wooden handle, both poured and frothed the chocolate for serving and was surely made of silver if it was to be used by elites (Smithsonian, 2015). In France, as in other parts of Europe, the drinking of chocolate was at times taboo for women. When the Infanta Maria Teresa married the King of France in 1660, she brought Spanish women to serve in her court but was forbidden from drinking chocolate with them and took to doing so in private, as the act was not permissible for noble French women (Coe, 154). However, this taboo did not last long; In 1671 the marquis de Sevigne wrote to her ill daughter that chocolate would make her well again saying:
“But you are not well, you have hardly slept, chocolate will set you up again. But you do not have a chocolatiere [chocolate-pot]; I have thought of it a thousand times; what will you do? Alas, my child, you are not wrong when you believe that I worry about you more than you worry about me.” (Coe, 155)
During this time, chocolate had a reputation for being untouchable to those of modest means. Recently at Hampton Court Palace researchers discovered a chocolate kitchen, a room in which the King’s personal chocolatier procured chocolate delights for the King and his court on a daily basis. So essential was this indulgence to the King that his chocolatier was known to travel with him to provide him with his sweet supply. As in France and Spain, the luxuriousness of consuming chocolate was not limited to the food itself but also included the means by which the chocolate was consumed. Pots for serving the beverage were often made of silver or gold. In fact, William III is reputed to have used a chocolate pot that was made of gold and weighed 33 oz! Many were employed in the making of chocolate and the associated paraphernalia and these costs associated with consumption meant that the drink was unattainable for many (Historic Royal Palaces, 2014)
The article linked below was published by the Smithsonian Institute and outlines the rise and fall of chocolate as the food of nobility. At one point it details the means by which chocolate eventually became accessible to people of all classes in Europe and the United States. The Industrial Revolution was in large part to thank for driving down the costs associated with chocolate consumption during the 19th century. For example, it was during this time that Coenraad Van Houton invented the cocoa process, which created cocoa powder, a staple ingredient of many chocolate products consumed today. While it is easy to see chocolate today as something that is off-limits to no one, to understand the history of chocolate is to understand that in Europe the commodity began as a luxury to be enjoyed by only those of the highest privilege.
Association of Small Collectors of Antique Silver (photographer). (2012). Mancerina. [digital image]. Retrieved from: http://www.ascasonline.org/newsGENNA104.html
Baker, Mary Louise. (Photographer). (1926). Rollout watercolor of the Ratinlixul vase from Guatemala. [digital image]. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.
Coe, M. & Coe, S. (2013). The true history of chocolate. London, UK: Thames & Hudson, Ltd.
Historic Royal Palaces. (2014, September 3). The making of the chocolate kitchen [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2QslIjfi_-I
Righthand, J. (2015). A brief history of the chocolate pot. Smithsonian Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/brief-history-chocolate-pot-180954241/
Presilla, M.E. (2009). The new taste of chocolate revised: A cultural and natural history of cacao with recipes. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.
Snodgrass, M.E. (2004). Encyclopedia of kitchen history. New York, NY: Fitzroy Dearborn.