All posts by aaas119x542

A small company in a big industry, Taza Chocolate is making a difference

The chocolate industry today is dominated by several large conglomerates like Mars, Hershey’s, Nestle that make up a large portion of the market in North America.  To put it in perspective, nearly 99.4% of snack sized chocolates are produced by the aforementioned companies!  A more recent-growing subdivision of the industry consists of craft chocolate makers.  Many young consumers can’t seem to get enough of it due to its old-fashioned style.  In her article in the Wall Street Journal, Alina Dizik describes it as “earthier, spicier and generally made with less sugar than sweet, creamy, European-style chocolate.”  In the article, Dr. Carla Martin of Harvard and Dr. Bletter, co-founder of Madre Chocolate, both are quoted in saying that the appeal to this type of chocolate is due largely to its adherence to chocolate’s original roots in ancient civilizations (Dizik).  Typically, Craft chocolate makers have company missions that attempt to eradicate some of the issues that exist within the broader chocolate industry.  Many issues regarding economic sustainability and exploitative labor are ubiquitous throughout the industry.  For example, Endangered Species chocolate helps to encourage funding for the animals who serve as their namesake.  A particularly interesting and pioneering bean-to-bar craft chocolate maker is Taza of Somerville, Massachusetts. Taza chocolate attempts to encourage economic and social growth and sustainability in underprivileged areas. Through the creation of the Direct Trade Certification program, Taza has laid a framework to help eradicate significant cacao-industry issues like under-compensation, lack of quality incentives, and exploitative labor practices.

Prior to understanding the ways in which Taza Chocolate has had a positive influence on the chocolate industry, it is useful to understand when and how this trailblazing company came to fruition.  According to Taza Chocolate’s company website, When Alex Whitmore traversed Central and South America he garnered a growing appreciation for both the work of cacao farmers and the incredible products that work could produce – mainly stone ground chocolate.  In Oaxaca, Mexico, Whitmore tasted his first piece of this unique chocolate and it had a tremendous impact on him.  He decided to apprentice at an Oaxaca chocolate factory and learn the ins-and-outs of the business, as he had plans to bring this industry back home to the Northeast.  Just a year later in 2006, Whitmore owned factory space in Somerville, Massachusetts along with a combination of both innovative and old-fashioned style machinery.  As his dream of starting a stone ground chocolate company from the ground up has finally begun to materialize, its success faltered due to a lack of quality ingredients.  While in Mexico, Whitmore tasted some of the most delectable chocolate he’s ever had, but it was difficult to purchase anything of even remotely the same quality on the open market back at home.  Not only were the initial beans not of great quality, most of the money Whitmore paid would end up in the hands of the middleman and not end up with the farmers who worked to create them.  Upon this discovery, Whitmore again made his way south to traverse the land in search of quality beans that would help to better create his product.  Whitmore established and maintained relationships with several cacao cooperatives and paid them a premium above market price for the cacao beans – the beginning of his Direct Trade Certification Program.  With this direct link to his cacao producers, the company of Taza Chocolate bore a mission to “make and share stone ground chocolate that is seriously good and fair forever” (Taza).   Below is a video that help’s to portray Taza’s story:

These values are in accordance with Taza Chocolate and their marketing strategy helps to pass that message along.  As you can see, values aside from profit maximization shine through this promotional video.  It seems as if the company is involved in the chocolate industry simply for the love of the industry.  Taza chocolate is a family business with intentions on creating a quality product that is fair and helpful to everyone.  As aforementioned, some of the major issues that Taza attacks include the unjust compensation for farmers, the presence of exploitative labor practices, and a lack of quality incentives for cacao farmers.

A 2011 study indicated that the average income per capita for a Ghanaian cocoa family household is below $0.30 a day – this is equivalent to just over $120 per year!  Chocolate is a $100 billion annual industry, but consistent cocoa farmer poverty exists in many of the production regions nonetheless.  Below is a map that details data on poverty worldwide.

Poverty

 

It is interesting to look at many of the cacao growing regions like the Ivory Coast, Western Africa, Central America and the northern part of South America. In Africa, Cacao growing regions experience anywhere from 30 to even greater than 60% of the population living below the poverty line.  Similarly staggering are the numbers in Central and Southern America, where many of the Cacao producing regions have 40% of the population living below the poverty line.

Taza Chocolate’s efforts in fighting for farmer compensation through their direct trade system is certainly encouraging, but it isn’t an entirely new idea.  It came in response to the shortcomings of a more ubiquitous and well-known movement known as Fair-Trade certification. Fair Trade, operating under the slogan “Quality Products. Improving Lives. Protecting the Planet.” seeks to help farmers in underprivileged areas build sustainable businesses while fighting for fair prices and wages, a direct trade system, and protection against exploitative labor practices.   Below is an infographic that depicts the results of their efforts in the cacao industry.

Fair Trade

 

While declaring several of the principles I’ve already mentioned, the infographic above also depicts some numeric evidence as to the Fair Trade system’s movement.  While increasing the price to the consumer by just 2%, Fair Trade allows for a 20% producer compensation increase.  Fair trade USA, according to their mission, seeks to foster worldwide change by using “a market-based approach that empowers farmers to get a fair price for their harvest, helps workers create safe working conditions, provides a decent living wage and guarantees the right to organize” (FairTrade).

Despite their company mission and the change they seek, many critics argue that Fair Trade USA has issues that prevents it from realizing its potential as a truly groundbreaking, life-improving operation.  Fair Trade retail sales amount to nearly $3 billion worldwide annually.  Critics say that much of these earnings do not actually reach the developing world, and even less reaches the farmers themselves (Martin).  In addition to this, there is a heavy cost shouldered by the farmers in order to become a certified farm or cooperative that can trade within the Fair Trade market.  Farmers are required to pay hefty certification fees and also pay surcharges for additional profits generated.  Moreover, despite an institutional value of fairness – “We work to create opportunities and extend the benefits of globalization to all people, everywhere.” (fairtradeUSA) -.Fair Trade is exclusionary as individual farmers that cannot afford the certification fees and surcharges are unable to become actors in the market, regardless of the quality of their cocoa bean.  Enter Alex Whitmore and his idea for Direct Trade.  Below is a video in which Mr. Whitmore discusses his journey in establishing Taza as a Direct Trade Craft Chocolate Maker.

In many ways, Taza’s Direct Trade Certification program attempts to build upon some of the shortcomings of Fair Trade.  Essentially, Whitmore explains that the Fair Trade model didn’t make much sense to Taza, especially if trying to adhere to the mission that it markets.   First and foremost, direct trade pays a premium far and above the price in the market from fair trade products.  In addition to this, the limits on participation are significantly mitigated.  Independent farmers are allowed to participate, it is not necessary to be a part of a cooperative.  Additionally, there are smaller fees and surcharges to become part of the Direct Trade Certification program.  There are several reasons for these differences that Whitmore explains.  Often times, due to the lack of capital and profit that actually reaches these farmers, quality of the cocoa produced suffers in an effort to maximize production at a low cost.  However, if more of the returns are actually claimed by the farmer or cooperative, and they do not have to pay significant involvement and certification fees, then ideally funds can be reallocated to preserving and producing high quality cacao.  In addition to improving these quality incentives, paying a larger premium and requiring a lesser fee for participation aids development and poverty in these underprivileged areas.  By encouraging economic growth and fostering sustainability, Taza’s direct Trade Program is helping to eradicate some of the economic issues that exist within the chocolate industry.

In addition to their economic efforts, Taza also prides themselves on being a socially responsible enterprise.  Although striving for economic sustainability is admirable, it ultimately doesn’t solve any of the major social issues that exist within the chocolate industry.  That said, there are two main facets to Taza’s social responsibility – creating and maintaining direct relationships and having a tough stance against exploitative labor.  The Direct Trade Certification program encourages direct communication between buyer and farmer through price negotiation.  They are committed to maintaining these direct relationships – they annually visit each of the cooperatives and farms with which they trade.  Although this is effective, no better evidence of Taza’s social efforts exists than their stance on exploitative labor.    According to research conducted by David McKenzie and Brent Swails at CNN, “child labor, trafficking and slavery are rife in an industry that produces some of the world’s best-known brands.”  The researchers go on to explain that “UNICEF estimates that nearly a half-million children work on farms across Ivory Coast, which produces nearly 40% of the world’s supply of cocoa. The agency says hundreds of thousands of children, many of them trafficked across borders, are engaged in the worst forms of child labor” (McKenzie).  As staggering as these figures may seem, it still hasn’t been enough to pass legislation to help prevent this exploitation.  As a socially responsible enterprise, Taza only buys cacao from farmers and cooperatives that ensure fair and humane labor practices and working conditions.

Currently, Taza chocolate maintains relationships with farms and cooperatives in the Dominican Republic, Bolivia, and Belize.  They are working to help institute quality controls and economic and agricultural sustainability. Through Taza’s vast effort to maintain direct relationships, provide more just compensation, and eradicate exploitative labor practices in these underprivileged areas, they have found a way to efficiently improve the system started by Fair Trade and ensure economic growth and sustainability while simultaneously encouraging a socially acceptable manner of production.  While, Taza’s pioneering efforts in the economic and social spheres of the chocolate industry are certainly impressive, there are certainly limitations as to how much positive impact they can have.  Many of today’s companies, especially those that fiercely dominate the chocolate industry are either involved in Fair Trade, implementing their own different strategy, or don’t participate in any controlled system whatsoever.  Until most of the industry actors are on the same page and are working together to make major social and economic changes, many of the aforementioned issues will persist.  Regardless, Taza is doing what they can to start the process, and it’s pretty impressive.

 

Works Cited

 “Direct Trade Certified Cacao.” Taza Chocolate. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 April 2015.

Dizik, Alina. “Stone-Ground Chocolate Gets Hate Mail and Lots of Love.” Wall Street Journal. Wall Street Journal, 13 Jan. 2015. Web. 01 May 2015.

“Fair Trade USA Mission/Values.” About Fair Trade USA. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.

Martin, Carla D. “Alternative Trade and Virtuous Localization/Globalization.” AAAS 119x Lecture 18. Emerson Hall 210, Cambridge. Lecture.

Martin, Carla D. “Modern Day Slavery.” AAAS 119x Lecture 15. Emerson Hall 210, Cambridge. Lecture.

McKenzie, David, and Swails, Brent. January 19, 2012. “Child Slavery and chocolate: All too Easy to find.” CNN.

“The Taza Chocolate Story.” Taza Chocolate. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 April 2015.

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Advertising in Big Chocolate: Perpetuating Stereotypes

Van Heusen

The advertisement for Van Heusen depicted above is one example of a strategy that producers have been employing for years.    It portrays a maternal figure catering to her male counterpart with the tagline ‘Show her it’s a man’s world.”  Although the advertisement does seem rather offensive and approaches have been milder in recent times, it still speaks to long term historical trends surrounding sexism and gender roles in the advertising world.  In her book, “Chocolate, Women, and Empire:  A Social and Cultural History” Emma Robertson describes it as the “fetishization of women as housewives and mothers.”  More specifically, she argues that “adverts have perpetuated western sexist and racist ideologies under a veneer of pleasurable consumption” (Robertson).   One may argue that today’s society is far more gender neutral regarding familial and societal roles and lifestyle, but these historical trends endure nonetheless. The chocolate industry is a paramount example in which producers rely heavily on the exploitation of women in a potentially negative sense.  Big Chocolate frequently utilizes existing stereotypes of women submissiveness and sexuality to enhance the attraction of the product among all of their intended consumers.  However, I feel as if the producers of these should be held to a higher standard and that they can still achieve the same level brand recognition by employing more gender equitable persuasion strategies.

In order to verify this claim, it is important to have a type of case study that helps illuminate some of the issues brought upon by certain chocolate companies.  Below is an ad released by Rolo in 2014.  It is interesting the note how recent this was released as it is evidence that many historical stereotypes of women still pervade advertisements in today’s society.

Here, Rolo depicts a young couple and the woman is catering to an injured man.  As she retrieves him a glass of water and telephone, he eats her last Rolo chocolate – to her utter dismay.  She begins to have visions of explosive level shock and anger; she throws glass of water and phone into the air and they shatter on the ground below.  As she snaps back into reality, she finds herself allowing her male counterpart (superior?) to eat the chocolate in a relatively cool manner. The advertisement is an attempt to portray how people, and women in particular, value and cherish the chocolate.  However, it also, perhaps unintentionally, creates a dichotomy between man and woman by depicting the man’s taking of the final Rolo as careless and nonchalant and the woman’s reaction as explosive and angry.  By appealing to a younger, general population and incorporating historic trends of sexism, Rolo is only perpetuating stereotypes that have timelessly existed within chocolate advertising.  By having her cater to her boyfriend, Rolo is highlighting a stereotype of women submissiveness.  Additionally, her mental dismay but feigned indifference only furthers this notion.  This woman submissiveness to her male counterpart is solidified by Rolo’s tagline at the conclusion of the advert: “Do you love anyone enough to give them your last Rolo?” which emits the idea that a woman should sacrifice for her significant other.  It is also interesting to think about the ubiquitously believed, supposed womanly infatuation with chocolate and the sexualization that is invoked because of it.  Although definitely a secondary theme in this advertisement, it exists nonetheless.  We can see the camera close up to the woman’s tongue and lips as she graciously and seductively consumes her Rolos.   This Rolo ad utilizes both of the long-standing techniques that perpetuate stereotypes of women – sexualization and maternalization.

As aforementioned, women sexualization and fetishization are popular themes employed by chocolate companies in today’s advertising world.  Although somewhat effective, I feel as if it is both unethical and avoidable.    In “Towards a New Paradigm in the Ethics of Women’s Advertising” John Alan Cohan explains that portraying women as sex objects and exploiting various weakness stereotypes as not only unethical, but not advantageous either.  The same level of brand recognition and advertising success can be achieved through the dismantling of such stereotypes, and confronting these age-old ideas of gender roles and women submissiveness.  Below is an adaptation of a Rolo ad created by a few colleagues and myself.

Our AD

Similarly to the video above, our ad shows a modern-age young couple. However, rather than woman catering to man, we depict the couple in a loving embrace at the table, urging one another to consume the lone Rolo that is left on the table.  Here we are trying to push across the idea that Rolo is a chocolate equally desirable to everyone, and it is something that is better shared.  By appealing to a similar audience our ad attempts to confront many of the gender-related stereotypes that are present in many modern-day chocolate advertisements.  It emphasizes an equality of gender and helps to eliminate the idea of male dominance and female submissiveness through the mutual desire and love for the product.  This gender and relationship equity is reinforced by the changing of the tagline.  It now reads “Rolo: Share the Love” in an endeavor to de-emphasize the stereotypes surrounding gender roles and to promote the chocolate as wholesome and ubiquitously desired and enjoyed.

Sure, this is just ONE example of what ONE company can do to ONE ad in an endeavor to more ethically promote their product.  However, as Cohan observes, we are beginning to see an increased prevalence in shifts toward a more gender neutral advertising approach.  By remodeling the scheme of the advertisement as we did above, no intended meaning was lost.  Rolo, in the first and second ad, is still depicted as a crazy desirable chocolate that everyone, men and women alike, wants a piece of.   Through this case study, it is evident that gender neutral advertising approaches can simultaneously put an end to the perpetuation of negative societal stereotypes against women and maintain their success in reaching their intended audience.

Works Cited
Cohan, John A. “Towards a New Paradigm in the Ethics of Women’s Advertising.” Journal of Business Ethics 33.4 (2011): 323-37. JSTOR. Web. 8 Apr. 2015.
Ferrante, Michael, Thomas Purnell, and Konrad Surkont. Rolo: Share the Love. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2015.
Robertson, Emma. 2010. Chocolate, Women, and Empire: A Social and Cultural History.
Rolo. Youtube. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2015. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D2hWUJKLteM&gt;.
Van Heusen. Digital image. Van Heusen, n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2015.

Sweet & Sour: How sugar gave rise to slavery

Beginning with the encomienda system in the early 1500s, systems of forced labor became the dominant means of mass production in American colonies (Coe).   Spanish, Portuguese, French, Dutch, Danish, and English colonists alike brought slaves to the New World with the endeavor to fulfill their domestic consumption demands.  Barring any of the deep-seeded racial prejudices which positively did exist, Africans became the primary targets of slavery due to the relative cheapness of the labor.  By using forced labor to produce goods to be sent back home, colonizers could both turn a hefty profit and meet demands.   Perhaps the most key component of the plantation system utilized by the colonists in America was the product of sugar.  A product that was “a rarity in 1650, a luxury in 1750, and a necessity by 1850” in England and other European nations alike, sugar became the cash crop that filled the mouths of Europeans, the wallets of colonizers, and the ships that traveled the transatlantic trade route (Mintz). From what started as an opportunity to utilize cheap labor, slavery quickly evolved to a profit charged institution that was both fostered and perpetuated by the World’s increasing desire to consume sugar – a cash crop that was both versatile in practice and a symbol of status.

Sugar Consumption Worldwide

As you can see from the chart above, world sugar consumption has grown rapidly over the course of the last few centuries.  From the 17th to the 18th century alone, sugar consumption per year more than doubled worldwide.  To put this in perspective, statistics indicate that only two hundred years ago, the average American ate only 2 pounds of sugar per year.  That number rose to 123 and 152 pounds per year by 1970 and the mid-2000s, respectively.  Sugar consumption has had one of the most fascinating, albeit concerning, upward trends of any food group in the history of the modern world.  After analyzing some of these statistics, two interesting questions come to mind.  First – why did it become so popular?  Furthermore, and more importantly in regards to this post, how was demand met?

Sidney Mintz in his book, “Sweetness and Power” details this significant growth and attributes it to the versatility associated with the cash crop.   In European nations, sugar was used for far more than just a sweetener.  There is evidence that suggests sugar was used medicinally, as a spice in cooking, as a preservative in some perishables like jams and jellies, and even as a decorative piece to the home.   Although just a few specific examples, this is credence to the idea that the versatility of sugar along with its great flavor aided its growth.   In addition to this, prior to its emergence in the mass-production market, sugar became seen as an indicator of wealth and high social status.  In reference to the aforesaid quote from Mintz, sugar’s evolution began with its hard to come by nature in the mid-17th century, morphed into a symbol of wealth and luxury by the 18th century, and eventually became mass-produced and consumed by the 19th.  With its popularity on the rise, producers were going to have to find a cost-effective, profit-maximizing method of meeting demands in the sugar market worldwide.  This ushered in the idea of forced labor.

The time frame in which the evolution of sugar production occurred parallels that of the rise of slavery.  The encomienda system began in the early 16th century and set the precedent for forced labor systems moving forward in the Americas.  It is no coincidence that these two timeframes concur.  The chart below accurately depicts the areas in which most of the sugar production in the Americas occurred.

Sugar Growth Loctions

As we can see, the Caribbean was a hot spot for sugar plantations as the combination of Cuba, Jamaica, Antigua, Haiti, and Barbados among others (Brazil) were paramount players in this market.   When the transatlantic slave trade between Africa, Europe and the America’s was thriving, 10-15 million African slaves were transported across the Atlantic to the Americas.  Of these 60% were to the Caribbean, and 30% were to Brazil – both are areas in which sugar production and refinement were of utmost importance.  To reinforce the idea of the slave trade’s concurrent rise with sugar, the transatlantic system thrived over the span of 1500-1900, which paralleled the rise of sugar.   Due to these significant increases in sugar demand, plantations were in desperate need of more helping hands – only exacerbating the slavery issue.

Sugar demand was growing at an alarming rate, and we must think about what this meant for those who were enslaved on these sugar plantations.  Below is a primary source of an undated poem that is a component of the Tyler Family Papers – these contain correspondence, documents, and writings of the Tyler Family, Quakers of New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

Tyler Family Papers Letter

 

The controversial poem helps to shed light on the entanglement of slavery and sugar production. The author frequently contrasts sugar’s sweet nature with the cruelty of forced labor and often employs the metaphor of the “blood of slaves as the price of sugar.”   It has been said that these plantations were running on all cylinders 24 hours a day, with slaves taking 18 hour shifts in order to generate the required output.  Not only did demand for the product increase the quantity of slaves imported, but it worsened the overall working conditions for them as well!

Slavery and the rise of sugar demand are fundamentally intertwined.  Economics teaches us that a vicious cycle is when a chain of events reinforces oneself through a continuous feedback loop – this is what happened in the relationship between sugar and slavery.  The human desire for something so good perpetuated and worsened the unjust system for creating that same thing.

 

Works Cited

Coe, S. & Coe, M. The true history of chocolate. Thames & Hudson, 1996. Print.

Martin, Carla D. “Popular Sweet Tooths and Scandal.” Digital Image. AAAS 119x Lecture 9. Cambridge. 25 Feb. 2015. Lecture.

Martin, Carla D. “Popular Sweet Tooths and Scandal.” Digital Image. AAAS 119x Lecture 10. Cambridge. 02 Mar. 2015. Lecture.

Mintz, Sidney W. Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York: Penguin, 1985. Print.

Tyler Family Papers. On Sugar. Digital image. Clements Library: University Of Michigan. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2015.

Beyond a source of food: The importance of cacao in Mesoamerica

The chocolate product that most of us are exposed to on a daily basis is far different from the pure cacao that was on the market as early as 1500 BCE in the Olmec civilization. I say “chocolate product” for good reason – as the mass-produced candy is made almost entirely of sugar and added ingredients, but that is neither here nor there.   Sure, like most other commercial products in today’s market, chocolate has been modified through the utilization of different production techniques and has been altered in a way that better suits the buyers’ desires.  Far more interesting than the change in chocolate production, however, is the evolution that has taken place culturally.   Typically seen as a happiness-associated junk food in today’s society, chocolate or cacao served a far greater and diverse purpose in many Mesoamerican cultures as it has been linked to use in medicinal, religious, and even sacrificial manners.

Before delving into the diverse ways in which cacao was culturally utilized thousands of years ago, it is interesting to note that many of the ancient civilizations perceived cacao to have various medicinal and health benefits as well.  The video below features anthropologist William Jeffrey Hurst analyzing the vast spectrum of medicinal uses of chocolate in Mesoamerican culture.  His research suggests that these civilizations had over 150 medicinal uses including but not limited to circulatory health, increased libido, mental illness, weight fluctuations, and vision impairment.  Hurst explains that it was legitimately the “cure-all for everything’ which is a perfect segue into some of the religious connotations associated with this Mesoamerican “food of the gods.”

After the conquering of the Yucatan peninsula by the Spanish in the 16th century, we learned that cacao became a staple in many Mesoamerican ritual proceedings.  Many times in class we’ve referred to cacao as the “food of the gods” (Ancient in Mesoamerica). According to much of the research conducted by Grivetti, this is very much a valid epithet. Several times throughout the year on cacao plantations, ritual proceedings in honor of several deities were conducted.  In addition, the cacao plant played a direct role in initiation ceremonies which parallel present day baptisms. In these, cacao was mixed with sacred water and crushed flowers to anoint children and adolescents (Grivetti, 2009).  This is just a single example of many of the religious usages of the plant.  That being said, much of the knowledge we have of cacao usage comes from analysis of ancient Mayan hieroglyphs.  The image below depicts cacao being offered in a Mesoamerican ritual.

Picture 1

Despite a revolution in regards to production, consumption, and significance, some Mesoamerican qualities and overall associations with cacao plants remain intact today.  For example, Valentine’s Day and chocolates are synonymous, and chocolate is very much a symbol of love in today’s society – it was in ancient Mesoamerica as well.  The image below depicts a cacao exchange at a wedding ceremony.

Picture 2

Although briefly, I’ve tried to shed light on the importance that Mesoamericans placed on the cacao plant by touching on various uses of the plant beyond consumption.  From medicinal benefits to religious ceremonies, cacao was ubiquitously esteemed as something truly special and versatile.  The extent to which the Olmec, Mayan, Aztec, and other civilizations in Mesoamerican cultures utilized cacao has helped to endure its reputation of a majestic “food of the gods.”  Despite the fact that in today’s society it has had a certain fall from grace, these ancient civilizations revered chocolate with such ardor that it began to be recognized on the global market.  It is due to these civilizations that cacao became a valuable trade commodity, and gained popularity overseas in the European theater after the the Spanish conquest of Central America (Coe, 1996).

 WORKS CITED

 Multimedia

“Ancient in Mesoamerica.” The Story of Chocolate. National Confectioner’s Association, n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2015.

Grivetti, Louis Evan., and Howard-Yana Shapiro. Figure 1.2. “Cacao Use in Yucatan Among the Pre-Hispanic Maya.” Chocolate: History, Culture and Heritage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2009. N. . Print.

Grivetti, Louis Evan., and Howard-Yana Shapiro. Figure 1.4. “Cacao Use in Yucatan Among the Pre-Hispanic Maya.” Chocolate: History, Culture and Heritage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2009. N. . Print.

 Scholarly

Coe, S. & Coe, M. The true history of chocolate. Thames & Hudson, 1996

Grivetti, Louis Evan., and Howard-Yana Shapiro. Figure 1.4. “Cacao Use in Yucatan Among the Pre-Hispanic Maya.” Chocolate: History, Culture and Heritage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2009. N. . Print.