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Final Multimedia Essay

Retail Shop Research on Chocolate

For my final multimedia essay, I chose the topic of visiting a retail shop such as CVS, and explaining what I can learn from this section. What I noticed when I walked from work to the Harvard Square CVS not too far from my walk home, was that the section wasn’t that large and most of the chocolates that were being presented were Ghirardelli. When viewing the section, I noticed the sign which said “Premium chocolates’ and as I viewed closer I noticed that the Ghirardelli chocolates came in different varieties. There were chocolates that were in different percentages of cocoa. They ranged from 78%, which is a weird percentage to 85 and 90%. The chocolates also were diverse because some of them that were being sold were white chocolate with coconut, while others were either dark chocolate or chocolate mixed with nuts such as almonds, hazelnut and cranberries. The prices were also another factor when I was observing this small section. Most of the chocolates that were on display had a 2 for 6 option while most of the chocolates were about $5. The section where the chocolates were displayed was next to the fridge area in CVS where most of the frozen foods are. It was also next to the snack aisle where there were tons of donuts, popcorn and other sweet foods. The other side of the premium chocolate section had chocolates that were all mostly Ghirardelli that had chocolates that were nearing $6 but there was a sale going on that made all of the chocolates “buy one get one 50% off”. I believe the chocolates were very inexpensive because the companies have to tend to their audience. Not everyone wants to buy expensive chocolate.

Here is a picture of the Premium Chocolates Section:

The History of Ghirardelli

Why is Ghirardelli such an important brand in chocolate history? Well first, Ghirardelli was first founded in 1852 in San Francisco, California. It is currently the third oldest chocolate company in the U.S. and was founded by the Italian Chocolatier Domenico Ghirardelli. The company has their business partner company, Lindt & Sprungli which is their parent company. Since the company’s start, they have been working on new techniques and different technologies to remain at the forefront of chocolate consumer brands. “The shop has experimented with a variety of products, including a line of alcoholic beverages until 1871, and a variety of goods like coffee, spices, and even mustard throughout the years. Innovation became tradition throughout the company – in 1867 a Ghirardelli employee discovered a flavor-enhancing technique that would eventually become widely used throughout the chocolate industry. Ghirardelli became one of the first American companies to tap into advertising strategies in order to gain popularity, and one of the first to include cacao content on labels to help discerning consumers select the perfect taste (Holcomb, Courtney. “A Brief History Of Ghirardelli Chocolate.” Culture Trip).”

I believe this company is trying to be the main consumer for chocolate because based on learning the classes lectures, about 200 years ago Americans only ate about 2 pounds of sugar a year. Studies from 1970 show that Americans ate even more sugar as the data increased and showed that Americans ate about 123 pounds a year. Today, the average amount Americans consume of sugar is now 152 pounds a year. In 2017, American consumers spent a whopping $22 billion on chocolate, averaging at around 12 pounds per person. America has been well known considering how much they love sweets and how commercials and marketing play a big role.

Chocolate History from Lectures

In 1879, Rudolph Linte, was the first to invent the conching process in Switzerland. This is major in chocolate history because conching helps with increasing viscosity in order to process the chocolate. “In the majority of chocolate manufacturing plants, the conche is preceded by a roll refiner or a hammer mill. These grind the chocolate mass to produce a crumbly paste or powder. One of the main aims of conching is to produce the optimum viscosity for the subsequent processing. The actual viscosity can be reduced by adding more fat, but as the price of the fat is frequently several times that of the other ingredients in the chocolate, this in turn increases the cost of the product. The aim, therefore, becomes one of obtaining the optimum viscosity at the lowest practical/legal fat content (Beckett, S. (2017). Conching).”

Chocolate Company’s Strengths

A lot of a chocolate company’s strength is definitely marketing and publicity  There has been this stigma that anything sweet, and attractive to the tongue is good, and that’s what a lot of chocolate companies have marketed themselves to be. That’s why during certain events such as Easter, companies thrive during those times because they take advantage of the sweet equals good stigma because of the easter marketing standards for kids. Most kids for Easter always go easter egg hunting, and usually what’s in the eggs are chocolate or some sweet. Chocolate companies take advantage over holidays like Easter and Halloween because that helps with their revenue.

Ghirardelli Square

Ghirardelli has been so successful that they have their own square in San Francisco, California. In 1893, Domenico Ghirardelli purchased a whole block, so he can make the Ghirardelli headquarters. In the early 1960’s it was sold to a macaroni company and was letter repurchased in 1962. His mother, William M. Roth purchased the land so it wouldn’t be used to create a new apartment complex. “The Roths hired landscape architect Lawrence Halprin and the firm Wurster, Bernardi & Emmons to convert the square and its historic brick structures to an integrated restaurant and retail complex, the first major adaptive re-use project in the United States. It opened in 1964. In 1965, Benjamin Thompson and Associates Renovated the lower floor of the Clock Tower, keeping the existing architectural elements, for a Design Research store. The lower floors of the Clock Tower are now home to Ghirardelli Square’s main chocolate shop. In order to preserve Ghirardelli Square for future generations, the Pioneer Woolen Mills and D. Ghirardelli Company was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982 (“Ghirardelli Square.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation).” This company is so well respected and well known, that a whole entire block was dedicated to the company’s main focus, chocolate.

Why is Dark Chocolate so special?

The french are known for eating dark chocolate as a treat, but why? Are there certain benefits towards eating dark chocolate or is it just well known for being such a good treat? During the chocolate production process, to increase the appeal of chocolate, most times the chocolate is processed even further which in turn makes the chocolate lose key ingredients that can be beneficial to our body. For example there is a type of processing of chocolate called Dutch processing and that makes the chocolate lighter. This sucks out all the key ingredients that make chocolate, chocolate. That’s why most companies add tons of sugar in their chocolate bars to make it more appealing to consumers. “And to make milk chocolate, candy makers really do add milk solids, which include saturated fats. According to FDA standards, American milk chocolate can contain as little as 10% cocoa, and the agency is debating a proposal to allow candy makers to substitute vegetable oil for cocoa butter. Bottom line: processing may make chocolate look lighter and taste sweeter, but it also removes healthy ingredients and adds harmful ones (‘Chocolate and your health: Guilty pleasure or terrific treat?).”

Statistics on Chocolate

After reading an article from Rodman media, I noticed that more than 70% of chocolate consumers are aware that dark chocolate is more healthier than white chocolate. “The latest research from Mintel revealed that for just more than half (51%) of all adult consumers, the favorite type of plain chocolate is milk chocolate, followed by 35% who favor dark chocolate and About 73% of all chocolate consumers are aware that dark chocolate is healthier than milk varieties. 8% who prefer white chocolate. In contrast, Mintel’s 2011 report found that 57% of consumers favored milk chocolate and 33% of consumers preferred dark chocolate. Some 46% of men age 55+ and 48% of women over age 55 favor dark chocolate, followed by 38% of men that prefer milk and 40% of women that also prefer milk. These numbers are indicative of the trend toward the increasing favor for dark chocolate. Indeed, 73% of all chocolate consumers are aware that dark chocolate is healthier (‘Dark Chocolate Gains Favor Thanks to Health Benefits’ (2013) Nutraceuticals).”

Cocoa Flavors

Chocolate companies such as Ghirardelli always make sure that they have different rudiments of cocoa flavor so that there is a variety of taste in each chocolate bar. Usually the more cocoa, the more expensive the chocolate is towards the consumer. I believe that sugar and other ingredients that make the chocolate taste more appealing, cheapen the chocolate itself. The more natural the chocolate is , the more untouched and less processed, the more bitter taste it has. That’s why dark chocolate is healthier for chocolate eaters than milk chocolate is. In one of the lecture slides from class, I witnessed a list of different odor active volatiles in cocoa mass. This shows what each odorant is and how their odour quality would be, the qualities range from a malty quality to a fruity one. There are a lot of factors incorporated with cocoa, and its key that all industrial companies follow the many rules in order to have a better consumer base.

Picture of the rudiments of cocoa flavor:

Conclusion

In conclusion, I believe that one of America’s oldest brands, takes pride in their industrialization of cocoa and how it should be manufactured. By investigating the chocolate section at my nearest CVS, I noticed the different brands in the regular chocolate section VS. the premium chocolate section . I realized the different percentages of cocoa in each chocolate bar and researched the effects of dark chocolate VS. white chocolate. I found it interesting how much Ghirardelli was displayed at the CVS and how there were many buy one get one 50% off deals. I dug deeper into the history of Ghirardelli along with the company’s strengths on consumers which showed me there’s a lot more to chocolate than just manufacturing it. More factors would include, marketing and knowing what your consumers like or don’t like. While researching this company I also learned a lot by viewing past lectures and how they related tremendously to the company and how they process their chocolates. Certain holidays mean a lot as well because in America, chocolate and sugar has been a known ingredient to use in basic cooking ingredients. And a lot of companies used that stigma to take advantage of the use of chocolate. I learned a lot based on the prominence of cocoa and how there is a lot to process before the chocolate is being sold in certain stores. The history of chocolate related to the history of Ghirardelli and other brands because of their processing system and how they plan on improving their company in various ways.

Work Cited

Holcomb, Courtney. “A Brief History Of Ghirardelli Chocolate.” Culture Trip, 1 Dec. 2016, theculturetrip.com/north-america/usa/california/articles/a-brief-history-of-ghirardelli-chocolate/.

Beckett, S. (2017). Conching. In Beckett’s Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use (pp. 241-273). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

“Ghirardelli Square.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 3 Mar. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghirardelli_Square.

Dark Chocolate Gains Favor Thanks to Health Benefits’ (2013) Nutraceuticals World, 16(6), p. 16. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=88838381&site=ehost-live&scope=site (Accessed: 3 May 2019).
‘Chocolate and your health: Guilty pleasure or terrific treat? (Cover story)’ (2009) Harvard Men’s Health Watch, 13(7), pp. 1–4. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=36211195&site=ehost-live&scope=site (Accessed: 3 May 2019).

Blog Post AAES “Popol Vuh Cacao”

AAAS E119

Blog Post

Brittany Woods

3/15/19

The story that is mentioned in this blog post, shows the influence cacoa in many ancient stories and civilizations such as the Maya, Aztec, and Inca. The discovery of chocolate by Christopher Columbus was a major milestone in the era of chocolate and how its popularity skyrocketed. Christopher Columbus discovered cacao on his last and final voyage to the New World he came across the Maya trading canoe where the cacao beans were being transported. He knew that whatever they were transporting was very valuable so he took them back to Europe and little did he know chocolate’s popularity skyrocketed. The spanish invaders that first learned the real knowledge of cacao were not from the Aztec civilization but from the Maya and in Central America. It’s crazy to think that the same Maya were also using cacao as a currency along with it being worshipped and served to many rulers. The ancestors of the Mayans had entered the Peten lowlands of northern Guatemala at around 1000 B.C, but before that they lived they way many Mayans did at the time which was on cool highlands of Guatemala and the Mexican State of Chiapas  which is where the wild cacao would’ve been found. If they did use the cacao that was growing in the lowlands, that must mean that they had another word for it because it wasn’t known until between 400 B.C and 100 A.D that the word cacao was born from Mixe-Zoquean speakers. The Mixe-Zoquean’s who apparently started the words and probably the material as well, to the Maya who were the bearers of the Olmec adopted culture which was called the “Izapan” by archeologists. This late Pre-Classic civilization was characterized by earthly ceremonial centers like those of the Olmec and a strong style of stone sculpture. The site, also called an “Izapa” was in a rich area to produce cacao which is located in Soconusco which is a very special place located in the Aztec empire. The Izapan culture then spread southeast to Guatemala along with it being spread to places dominated by the Olmec. That being said, the areas mentioned are perfect for cacao producing and therefore it was the Izapans who were the first to plant cacao during the spanish colonial time period. “Important narrative episodes in the Popul Vuh or “Book of Counsel” can be traced back as far as the Izapans of the Late Preclassic, specifically to carved stone stelae at Izapa itself. The great epic of the Popol Vuh was the sacred book of the Quiche Maya of the Guatemalan highlands, and was written down not long after the Conquest, using the alphabet; Maya specialists believe that it was transcribed from a now-lost hieroglyphic original.” This is relevant because the cacao has been prevalent in the book of Popul Vuh by using the maize god in a cacao tree. The story begins with a set of twins who are sons of an elder couple who supposably created the universe. The twins unfortunately had their life end pretty quickly because they entered the Maya underworld where they were beheaded by the lords of the underworld. One of the severed heads was hung up in a cacao tree (known as the maize god) and extraordinarily impregnates the daughter of the ruler of Xibalban. The ruler in disgraces expels his daughter as she gives birth to twins, the names being; Hunahpu and Xbalanque. Following a series of events, the twins then go on a journey to defeat the ruler of Xibalban, after they did their deed they also went to resurrect their slain father who was known as the Maize God. After resurrected their dad, the story ends in a symbolic form by presenting the burial growth and rebirth of the maize, which shows the rebirth of the maya. “Cacao appears several times in the Popol Vuh as it has come down to us, but as part of the market basket , so to speak, not the revered substance that it was to become”(“The True History of Chocolate” 42). This story shows the relevancy of chocolate and how it was incorporated into many origins along with sculptures and stories to show how important chocolate really was. “I learned that although sugar cane was flanked by other harvests — coffee, cacao (chocolate), indigo, tobacco, and so on — it surpassed them all in importance and outlasted them” (“Sweetness And Power Intro”).

The Chocolate Class. “Cacao and its Ancient Literary Significance” https://chocolateclass.wordpress.com/tag/popol-vuh/\

The Popul Vuh: Mayan Creation Myth Animated Full Version

The image above, is the cover book of the Popul Vuh which shows many mayan illustrations/drawings that in some way involve cacao and how it heavily influenced many civilizations.