Tag Archives: Bean to bar

Askinosie Chocolate: More Than Just Chocolate

Askinosie Chocolate

“It’s not about the chocolate, it’s about the chocolate.”  At first glance, the slogan of Askinosie Chocolate puzzles the unacquainted.  But for those familiar with Askinosie Chocolate, the saying sounds just right. This Bean to Bar chocolate dates its origin to 2005, when a criminal defense lawyer living in Springfield, Missouri prayed to the heavens for a new vocation (Askinosie Chocolate). When his sights became set on chocolate, the perseverance and analytical skills that suited him so well as a lawyer easily transitioned into the world of chocolate. He threw himself into the history of cocoa, in the farming of it and the business of it. After spending time in the Amazon studying the techniques of the cocoa farmers, Shawn Askinosie finally decided to create a business of his own. This business would be a rare type of chocolate company, one of the few bean to bar companies in America during the early 2000s (Askinosie Chocolate).  Askinosie embraced the challenge of making chocolate from the cocoa beans, along with importing the beans directly from the source and treating the cocoa farmers like business partners (Askinosie Chocolate). When making chocolate of the highest quality and taste was mastered, it began to be sold at places like Jeni’s Splendid Ice Creams and Van Leeuwen. The true mission of creating such chocolate was so that this business could use its success to weave social responsibility in the realm of cocoa. Clay Gordon was quoted as describing Shawn Askinosie as “not looking to maximize his profits, [but] looking to maximize his company’s impact on the world,” (Chocolate Noise).Askinosie Chocolate has done just that with their commitment to fairness, sustainability, and environmental preservation (Askinosie Chocolate). The way that Askinosie Chocolate has continued to make a unique impact is by sharing profits, utilizing direct trade, and emphasizing community development.

When it comes to selling cocoa, farmers face an uphill battle.  World market price “sets the terms for international exchange of cocoa,” but the farmers rarely receive the true price for their product (Leissle 2018). In fact, many are “highly vulnerable to being cheated,” especially in remote areas and with large businesses that can use the threat of buying elsewhere to drive down prices (Leissle 2018). The idea of fair trade is a flawed solution to this problem, as the minimum premium that is set for the cocoa is not always reported.  Therefore, Askinosie Chocolate participates in “direct trade;” paying farmers a premium for their cocoa quality, along with the costs of environmental aspects without the use of a broker (Askinosie Chocolate). Cocoa farmers rarely receive “the full world market price,” due to the presence of brokers that can be charged with inspecting the beans, weighing them, and transporting them across the sea. Askinosie chocolate removes these middle men and deals directly with the farmers. The company boasts that “every single bean purchase we’ve made in our history has exceeded the average farm gate price” or the price of the producer that is paid at the point of sale (Askinosie Chocolate). This claim is backed up with their transparency reports that can be easily accessed upon their website.  In the last eleven years, Askinosie has paid farmers an average of 35% above the world market price and 25% above the fair trade price. These prices do not factor in shipping costs, because Askinosie Chocolate handles the costs of shipping to U.S. ports, paying the company, freight forwarders, and customs brokers (Askinosie Chocolate). This policy places Askinosie in complete control of importation. This rarity in the chocolate world is a deliberate choice to ensure that the beans bought by Askinosie Chocolate are not mixed up with another companies’ and that they are safely delivered to the company factory and warehouse. It is a win-win situation forboth parties. Direct trade between Askinosie and the farmers ensures that the farmers receive as much of the profit as possible.  

With the benefits of direct trade, the money that would normally be received by the middle men is shared between the two parties. By nature, the business of farming cocoa is an inconsistent system.  In Africa, there are two main seasons for growing cocoa where the profits for the entire year might be made (Leissle 2018). This characteristic causes cocoa farmers to rarely receive a “regular paycheck” or “long term wages,” instead relying on the main growing season (Leissle 2018).  They are forced to hire daily laborers and use credit to purchase fertilizer, pesticides, and other instruments necessary for this main season. Because these farmers only earn cash when they sell their beans and pods, they are required to pay off their debts before addressing “individual and household needs:” like food, clothing, clothing, tuition, and school supplies (Leissle 2018).  Askinosie Chocolate acknowledges these burdens and for every purchase they make, at least “10% net profit or 1% gross revenue” is paid to the farmers (Askinosie Chocolate). This bonus can reach up to 18.8% above the farm gate price, which is why the world market and fair trade prices paid by Askinosie can reach the excesses of 35% and 25% mentioned earlier. As of last fall, Askinosie Chocolate has shared with almost $100,000 with the farmers it does business with (Askinosie Chocolate).  With the money from the profit shares, farmers prefer to invest back into their own businesses (Askinosie Chocolate).  They purchase better equipment and supplies, and collaborate and teach other farmers techniques that result in better beans.  Better beans allow the farmers leverage for better prices, which creates a ripple effect that raises the price of cocoa and stimulates the economy (Askinosie Chocolate).  These practices build strong relationships between Shawn Askinosie and the local farmers. A testament to this relationship is shown on the front of Askinosie Chocolate bars, where the faces of farmers from the respective regions of the cacao are proudly plastered. 

The video above tells the story of a well that was donated to the people of Tanzania. The people who lived in Mababu originally had a well that was pitifully shallow and contained murky water. The money for the well was raised by Askinosie Chocolate and the Cocoa Honors students from Central High School in Springfield, MO. While this was the first experience of entrepreneurship and philanthropy for the students, Shawn Askinosie is no stranger.  Inspired by children at a homeless shelter in his own community, Shawn Askinosie created Chocolate University (Askinosie Chocolate). This was a learning program with a “worldwide reach” for local students to be inspired to challenge the problems that plague our world today. Even though over $10 million has been raised for anti-slavery work in cocoa, these practices persist in west Africa, also known as the Ivory Coast (Berlan 2013). Large chocolate companies permit this cycle to occur when buying from places where slave trade and child labor are known to occur.  Either the companies are too large to pay close enough attention or they are aware of where they purchase their chocolate and choose to continue to do so. In the 1900s, it was Cadbury Chocolate who was in business with Sao Tome where slavery, in all but name, was occurring (Satre 2005).  To this day, companies like Hershey’s, Mars, and Nestle are supplied by places in Africa where “the worst forms of child labor, human trafficking, and slavery” are present (Mistrati and Romano, 2010). Companies like Askinosie Chocolate are so important because they break against this mold. When Shawn Askinosie asked the Cocoa Honors Students to find a new source of cocoa, he emphasized that it must be from an ethical source without the cruelties of child labor, human trafficking, and slavery.  After choosing Mababu, Tanzania, Shawn tasked these students with finding the best way they could help this community. The well that they built had an immediate impact, and as shown in the video, the people were dancing, singing, and very happy to receive the donation. This does not miraculously erase or end their suffering, but it takes a step in the right direction and makes a significant difference on the health of the residents.  

Shawn Askinosie at the newly built well in Mababu.

Shawn Askinosie does not just delve in chocolate. Askinosie Chocolate created a program called A Product of Change (Askinosie Chocolate).  The program is mediated through the Chocolate University founded by Askinosie and maintained by the students of schools who live in Springfield, MO (Askinosie Chocolate). A key project of this program is the Sustainable Lunch Program, where the rice that is taken from the origin communities are sold by Askinosie Chocolate and one hundred percent of the profits are returned to these communities. Because of the high rates of malnourishment in these communities, the profits are used to provide a school lunch to hungry students.  Since the start of this program in 2013, more than 96,000 lunches have been provided at Mwaya Secondary School (Askinosie Chocolate).  A similar program is undergone at Malagos, where a Filipino hot cocoa called Tableya is sold and one hundred percent of the profits are used to provide lunches to local students. This program has provided more than 240,000 school lunches in the last nine years. Chocolate University is a unique opportunity to provide real world experience and lessons that cannot be taught in the classroom, and Askinosie Chocolate should be proud of its involvement in the many things that they do.  

In conclusion, Askinosie Chocolate is a truly unique chocolate company.  Askinosie Chocolate started off as a way for a man to escape from high profile murder cases and front page felonies and has grown into something truly impactful.  With a small business that uses a shortened supply chain, many problems and difficulties arise that are not as easily handled compared to corporations like Mars or Hershey’s.  “You have to be content with being discontent,” is Shawn’s response to that difficulty, because to him, it is worth it (Askinosie Chocolate). To the people of places like Tanzania, cocoa is their lifeline.  The success or failure to grow and sell cocoa could mean the difference between health and malnourishment or even life and death. The problems that many face in the United States would be considered trivial in less developed countries that grow cocoa.  For too long have these places been exploited by large chocolate companies and now, bean to bar companies like Askinosie Chocolate provide ideal models on how to successfully purchase and sell cocoa and chocolate without compromising ethical standards.  Askinosie Chocolate has improved the lives of many cocoa farmers from across the world, both by providing economic and residential benefit.  By using direct trade and a shortened supply chains, Askinosie Chocolate maximizes the profits of the farmers. Gone are the fees associated with shipping and middle men that lord over the local farmers and claim cheat these men and women of their hard earned profits. By sharing their profits, Askinosie Chocolate equips farmers with the necessary capital to upgrade their farming supplies and improve their farming yields, leading to an increase in prices of cocoa and stimulation of the economy. By investing in programs and projects that are designed to feed and support the community, Askinosie Chocolate changes the lives of entire families and communities. That’s why it’s not about the chocolate, it’s about the chocolate. 

URL:

https://www.askinosie.com

http://www.chocolatenoise.com/askinosie-chocolate/

https://www.wbur.org/npr/171891081/bean-to-bar-chocolate-makers-dare-to-bare-how-its-done

Works Cited:

https://www.askinosie.com

Berlan, Amanda. (2013) Social Sustainability in Agriculture: An Anthropological Perspective on Child Labour in Cocoa Production in Ghana, The Journal of Development Studies, 49:8, 1088-1100, DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2013.780041

Leissle, Kristy. “Invisble West Africa” The Politics of Single Origin Chocolate.” University of California Press. 13:3, 22-31, 2013.

Leissle, Kristy. Cocoa. Polity Press. 2018. 

Mistrati, Miki, and Romano, U. Roberto. The Dark Side of Chocolate. Performed by Mistrati, Miki (2010; Copenhagen: Bastard Film & TV). DVD.

Satre, Lowell J.  Chocolate on Trial: Slavery, Politics, and the Ethics of Business. Ohio University Press. 2005. 

Alter Eco Bean To Bar Chocolate

Chocolate is a product whose production is too often ambiguous and somewhat unethical. It is never one’s intention to consume a product made through an unethical venue unless one is an especially evil and demented person whose goal is to exploit another for their own satisfaction. Sometimes, a delicious bite of chocolate comes with an unknown consequence. Ever since the public has become more aware of the exploitative process of child labor, slavery, and unfair pay that sometimes accompanies making chocolate, some companies have risen to the forefront of responsible chocolate by ensuring their process does not take advantage of anyone and by using the bean to bar tactic. Alter Eco is one of these companies who makes responsible bean to bar chocolate. They directly source 100 percent of their products from small scale farmers. They responsibly pay their farmers through the fair trade act and even provide their farmers with assistance that goes beyond fair trade pricing. They ensure their chocolate is quality by producing it in a controlled environment so it can be delivered to one’s door guilt free.

To understand why Alter Eco is such a responsible and rare company in the chocolate business, one must understand the meaning of bean to bar and why it is so important in today’s chocolate making climate. Bean to bar is a simple concept but seems to not be as prevalent as it should be in the chocolate industry. Bean to bar refers to a model of trade in which the company making the chocolate controls every aspect in the production of the chocolate itself.(1) This means that the company does not use middlemen when buying cacao, and controls where and how the chocolate is made up until the product is finished.(2) A common misconception with bean to bar is that it is conflated with the chocolate being artisan high quality chocolate. Many bean to bar chocolates are in fact high quality artisan chocolate still, including Alter Eco’s fine chocolates. A common misconception with bean to bar is that it is conflated with the chocolate being artisan high quality chocolate.(3)Many bean to bar chocolates are in fact high quality artisan chocolate still, including Alter Eco’s fine chocolates.

Some of Alter Eco’s bean to bar Products

Problems plaguing the chocolate industry are extremely worrisome for the international community.  Chocolate is too often not a victimless product, and child labor that breaks international law such as close to 1.8 million children who are subject to the worst forms of child labor on the Ivory Coast alone is used to produce the cacao that is consumed in chocolate bars.(4)The amount of child laborers being used is much higher than acceptable, although this problem is much more complicated than one might think. A lot of families depend on their children to help them with bringing in the cacao beans in farming season, but this also is not considered the worst form of child labor. (5)Slavery was the foundation of cacao production from its inception from the encomienda system up to the triangular trade system, and has not fully left the cacao production industry.(6) From the Cadbury case after slavery was abolished in West Africa where the Cadbury company continually bought cacao from known slave using farms to the forms of child slavery and slavery in the Ivory coast of Africa, slavery has plagued cacao production. (7)Too often farmers are forced to sell to middlemen for below the fair trade price which is a set price that has been adopted by some chocolate companies they have agreed to pay cacao farmers. (8) According to Green America’s chocolate scorecard, Mars, Nestle, and Hershey do not purchase sustainable cacao from farmers- sustainable meaning cacao is sold at a price at which the farmers can live off of- at a rate of 100%. In fact, Mars only purchases 50% certified cacao, Hershey checks in at around 70%, and Nestle at 42%.(9)This means that three of the top chocolate producers are not paying their cacao producers prices that they can even live off of.(10) This is an atrocity that Alter Eco is trying to address in their bean to bar process.

Alter Eco directly deals with their cacao farmers unlike many bigger corporations such as the Mars company who only used 50% certified cacao in 2017, and was given a C grade in the  Chocolate scorecard which grades companies on where they get their cacao from, how much of it is certified and sustainable for farmers, and the programs that company has in place to help improve the cacao farmers situations.(17)Alter Eco received an A grade on this.(18) Alter Eco values their relationships with their small farm farmers, and they make it possible for small-scale, farmer owned cooperatives to be able to invest their profits directly into improving the quality of life and the quality of products in their communities.(19)All of Alter Eco’s products are 100% fair trade certified, which means that all of their farmers are paid fairly for their cacao and other products being bought from them.(20) This price ensures sustainable production and living conditions for the farmers and their families, and comes with a premium to help support the growth of cooperatives in the community.(21)This is much different than other larger chocolate corporations. These larger corporations have more capital and influence, yet do not wield it as well as Alter Eco does. For example, many larger companies buy cheap cacao through middlemen rather than directly going to the source like Alter Eco.(22) This is unsustainable cacao and Green America does a good job of measuring just how much sustainable cacao larger corporations purchase- not a lot. This is irresponsible on the part of these larger companies because of the potential of good they could do for the farmers- who on average are three times their yearly income in debt- if they just tried to be more conscious of social issues surrounding cacao production and chocolate production as Alter Eco is.

This is why chocolate companies should buy fair trade chocolate

Not only does Alter Eco buy directly from small farmers at fair trade prices, but they provide assistance to their farmers past just a simple economic deal. Alter Eco supports programs that train members on the farms with programs ranging from agricultural workshops all the way to entrepreneurial workshops and education workshops for the children of the farmers. This is a long way from buying cacao from farms that employ children for little to no pay or even use child slavery.(23)They also provide medical exams for the farmers and their families, help to provide reforestation in the regions in which they buy chocolate, and even provide the farmers and their families with new stoves to combat the poorly ventilated stoves that a lot of cacao farmers typically have in their homes.(24)They also provide financial loans to their farmers if required which helps the farmers -who are often struggling financially- to be able to provide for their families in seasons that do not produce as much cacao as they might have hoped for.(25)Alter Eco clearly is socially responsible and has the people, not the payout on their mind as they go about buying their cacao beans straight from the source. This is why they received the high mark of an A from one of the most reputable social justice watchdogs in the food industry in Green America.

Once Alter Eco pays a Fair Trade price for their cacao that they buy directly from farmers that they have relationships with, they leave the beans to ferment for a week in a wooden crate.(26) This allows for the cacao’s pulp to liquify and for complex chemical changes in the bean itself to take place to enhance the flavor of the cacao.  Once this process is finished, the beans are laid out under the sun until their moisture content reaches approximately seven percent. This can take up to three weeks to complete. Once the beans are dried, they are shipped to Alter Eco’s chocolate manufacturer in Switzerland.(27) When the beans arrive to Switzerland, they are roasted for hours to which brings out the flavor of the bean, and then the roasted beans are broken down and their skins are taken off. (28) These broken down pieces of cacao are known as nibs.(29)The nibs then are put under a heavy stone and ground down.(30) This process brings out cocoa butter from the beans and leaves the remaining cocoa mass. (31)The cocoa butter and cocoa mass are then put into the conching process. This process consists of the cocoa products being slowly mixed into other ingredients while slowly being heated throughout the conching process.(32) This process takes multiple hours, and the longer the cacao and other ingredients are conched, the better and smoother the chocolate will be.(33)Once the conching process is done, the chocolate is molded and packaged to be sent out for chocolatiers to enjoy.

Bean to bar chocolate is often one of the most socially responsible ways to make chocolate, especially when Alter Eco does it. There are plenty of issues in the chocolate industry that can not be fixed all at once, but Alter Eco is doing everything they can to ensure that they are making a difference in an industry packed with powerful corporations who should be more socially responsible than they are. The chocolate industry is plagued with child labor and modern day slavery that dehumanizes people. Farmers are not paid as well Alter Eco buys straight from the farmers of their cacao at a sustainable price for the farmers 100% through fair trade, so the farmers can have an income that will support their family year round, even in down years. Not only do they pay sustainable prices, but they go the extra mile to ensure that the farmer’s families are healthy, ensure their equipment is safe, loan extra money if they need, and have outreach programs to advance the lives of the farmers’ families and improve the quality of their products. They go above and beyond for their farmers because Alter Eco believes in contributing more into the world than they get out of it. From purchasing the beans from farmers who they have a relationship with up until the cacao is sent to Switzerland to be made into fine chocolate, Alter Eco is the premier responsible chocolate making bean to bar company. They provide a blueprint for what larger companies ought to be doing and contribute to the community of chocolate by making the most responsible bean to bar chocolate in the world.

Footnotes

1: Yamada, Nicholas. “Bean-to-Bar Chocolate: What Does This Label Really Mean?” Perfect Daily Grind, 16 Nov. 2018, http://www.perfectdailygrind.com/2017/12/bean-bar-chocolate-label-really-mean/.

2:Yamada, Nicholas. “Bean-to-Bar Chocolate: What Does This Label Really Mean?” Perfect Daily Grind, 16 Nov. 2018, http://www.perfectdailygrind.com/2017/12/bean-bar-chocolate-label-really-mean/.

3:Yamada, Nicholas. “Bean-to-Bar Chocolate: What Does This Label Really Mean?” Perfect Daily Grind, 16 Nov. 2018, http://www.perfectdailygrind.com/2017/12/bean-bar-chocolate-label-really-mean/.

4:“Child Labor and Slavery in the Chocolate Industry.” Food Empowerment Project, foodispower.org/human-labor-slavery/slavery-chocolate/.

5: Martin, Carla D. “Slavery, Abolition, and Forced Labor.” Google Slides, Google, docs.google.com/presentation/d/1-tCZfTFSi7EuZqb1dxrJatPuv–33tERRDYM0y_PZBg/edit#slide=id.g8c500cbc9_2_55.

6: Martin, Carla D. “Slavery, Abolition, and Forced Labor.” Google Slides, Google, docs.google.com/presentation/d/1-tCZfTFSi7EuZqb1dxrJatPuv–33tERRDYM0y_PZBg/edit#slide=id.g8c500cbc9_2_55.

7:“The ‘Chocolate Slaves’ of the Ivory Coast.” End Slavery Now, http://www.endslaverynow.org/blog/articles/the-chocolate-slaves-of-the-ivory-coast.

8:“Fairtrade Chocolate – Fairtrade America.” Fairtrade Chocolate – Fairtrade America, fairtradeamerica.org/Fairtrade-Products/Chocolate.

9:“Child Labor in Your Chocolate? Check Our Chocolate Scorecard.” Green America, http://www.greenamerica.org/end-child-labor-cocoa/chocolate-scorecard.

10: “Child Labor in Your Chocolate? Check Our Chocolate Scorecard.” Green America, http://www.greenamerica.org/end-child-labor-cocoa/chocolate-scorecard.

11: “Our Story.” Alter Eco. Accessed May 02, 2019. https://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/our-story.

12: “Our Story.” Alter Eco. Accessed May 02, 2019. https://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/our-story.

13: “Our Story.” Alter Eco. Accessed May 02, 2019. https://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/our-story.

14: “Our Story.” Alter Eco. Accessed May 02, 2019. https://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/our-story.

15: “Vote Every Day. Vote B Corp.” Certified B Corporation, bcorporation.net/.

16: “Our Story.” Alter Eco. Accessed May 02, 2019. https://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/our-story.

17:“Child Labor in Your Chocolate? Check Our Chocolate Scorecard.” Green America, http://www.greenamerica.org/end-child-labor-cocoa/chocolate-scorecard.

18:“Child Labor in Your Chocolate? Check Our Chocolate Scorecard.” Green America, http://www.greenamerica.org/end-child-labor-cocoa/chocolate-scorecard.

19:“Invest In Farmers.” Alter Eco, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/invest-in-farmers.

20:“Invest In Farmers.” Alter Eco, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/invest-in-farmers.

21: “Invest In Farmers.” Alter Eco, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/invest-in-farmers.

22: “The Dark Side of the Chocolate Industry.” Sierra Club, 21 Oct. 2017, http://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/green-life/dark-side-chocolate-industry.

23:Posts, Blog. “You’re Not Only Buying Chocolate, You’re Supporting Communities around the World.” Alter Eco, Alter Eco, 10 Oct. 2017, http://www.alterecofoods.com/blogs/blog/youre-not-only-buying-chocolate-youre-supporting-communities-around-the-world.

24:Posts, Blog. “You’re Not Only Buying Chocolate, You’re Supporting Communities around the World.” Alter Eco, Alter Eco, 10 Oct. 2017, http://www.alterecofoods.com/blogs/blog/youre-not-only-buying-chocolate-youre-supporting-communities-around-the-world.

25: Posts, Blog. “You’re Not Only Buying Chocolate, You’re Supporting Communities around the World.” Alter Eco, Alter Eco, 10 Oct. 2017, http://www.alterecofoods.com/blogs/blog/youre-not-only-buying-chocolate-youre-supporting-communities-around-the-world.

26:Ambert, Antoine, and Antoine Ambert. “How Is Our Chocolate Produced?” Alter Eco, Alter Eco, 16 Apr. 2018, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/how-is-our-chocolate-produced.

27: Ambert, Antoine, and Antoine Ambert. “How Is Our Chocolate Produced?” Alter Eco, Alter Eco, 16 Apr. 2018, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/how-is-our-chocolate-produced.

28: Ambert, Antoine, and Antoine Ambert. “How Is Our Chocolate Produced?” Alter Eco, Alter Eco, 16 Apr. 2018, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/how-is-our-chocolate-produced.

29:Ambert, Antoine, and Antoine Ambert. “How Is Our Chocolate Produced?” Alter Eco, Alter Eco, 16 Apr. 2018, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/how-is-our-chocolate-produced.

30: Ambert, Antoine, and Antoine Ambert. “How Is Our Chocolate Produced?” Alter Eco, Alter Eco, 16 Apr. 2018, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/how-is-our-chocolate-produced.

31:Ambert, Antoine, and Antoine Ambert. “How Is Our Chocolate Produced?” Alter Eco, Alter Eco, 16 Apr. 2018, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/how-is-our-chocolate-produced.

32:Ambert, Antoine, and Antoine Ambert. “How Is Our Chocolate Produced?” Alter Eco, Alter Eco, 16 Apr. 2018, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/how-is-our-chocolate-produced.

33:Ambert, Antoine, and Antoine Ambert. “How Is Our Chocolate Produced?” Alter Eco, Alter Eco, 16 Apr. 2018, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/how-is-our-chocolate-produced.

34: “Child Labor and Slavery in the Chocolate Industry.” Food Empowerment Project, foodispower.org/human-labor-slavery/slavery-chocolate/.

Works Cited

Ambert, Antoine, and Antoine Ambert. “How Is Our Chocolate Produced?” Alter Eco, Alter Eco, 16 Apr. 2018, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/how-is-our-chocolate-produced.

Child Labor and Slavery in the Chocolate Industry.” Food Empowerment Project, foodispower.org/human-labor-slavery/slavery-chocolate/.

“Child Labor in Your Chocolate? Check Our Chocolate Scorecard.” Green America, http://www.greenamerica.org/end-child-labor-cocoa/chocolate-scorecard.

“Fairtrade Chocolate – Fairtrade America.” Fairtrade Chocolate – Fairtrade America, fairtradeamerica.org/Fairtrade-Products/Chocolate.

“Invest In Farmers.” Alter Eco, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/invest-in-farmers.

Martin, Carla D. “Slavery, Abolition, and Forced Labor.” Google Slides, Google, docs.google.com/presentation/d/1-tCZfTFSi7EuZqb1dxrJatPuv–33tERRDYM0y_PZBg/edit#slide=id.g8c500cbc9_2_55.

“Our Story.” Alter Eco, http://www.alterecofoods.com/pages/our-story. Accessed 2 May 2019.

Posts, Blog. “You’re Not Only Buying Chocolate, You’re Supporting Communities around the World.” Alter Eco, Alter Eco, 10 Oct. 2017, http://www.alterecofoods.com/blogs/blog/youre-not-only-buying-chocolate-youre-supporting-communities-around-the-world.

“The ‘Chocolate Slaves’ of the Ivory Coast.” End Slavery Now, http://www.endslaverynow.org/blog/articles/the-chocolate-slaves-of-the-ivory-coast.

“The Dark Side of the Chocolate Industry.” Sierra Club, 21 Oct. 2017, http://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/green-life/dark-side-chocolate-industry.

“Vote Every Day. Vote B Corp.” Certified B Corporation, bcorporation.net/.

Yamada, Nicholas. “Bean-to-Bar Chocolate: What Does This Label Really Mean?” Perfect Daily Grind, 16 Nov. 2018, http://www.perfectdailygrind.com/2017/12/bean-bar-chocolate-label-really-mean/.

Media Works Cited

Balch, Oliver. “Child Labour: the Dark Truth behind Chocolate Production.” Raconteur, Raconteur Media Ltd., 22 June 2018, http://www.raconteur.net/business-innovation/child-labour-cocoa-production.

celticross89. “Why Buy Fair Trade Chocolate?” YouTube, YouTube, 31 Oct. 2010, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2NZv8FX4wPc.

Chung, Elizabeth. “5 Innovative Programs Changing the Social Sector | Classy.” Best Practices, Tips and Fundraising Ideas for Nonprofits, Classy, 29 June 2018, http://www.classy.org/blog/5-innovative-programs-changing-social-sector/.

Yu, Douglas. “Alter Eco Founders on NextWorld Evergreen’s Acquisition: Chocolate Consumers Want a Story.” Confectionerynews.com, William Reed Business Media Ltd., 18 Dec. 2017, http://www.confectionerynews.com/Article/2017/12/18/NextWorld-Evergreen-acquires-Alter-Eco.