Tag Archives: Brand Name Chocolate

An Analysis of the Chocolate Selection at Cardullo’s and CVS

The chocolate selection at any store indicates who their consumers are, what the most popular products are, and the overall price will indicate its purchase by the consumer. I have chosen to investigate the chocolate selection at Consumer Value Stores, better known as CVS, and Cardullo’s Gourmet Shoppe. The two shops are conveniently across the street from each other in Harvard square. The location of CVS and Cardullo’s is important to mention because that may indicate what products they have and the price points of each product. I chose the CVS location in Harvard square believing there may be some higher end options offered here due to the location and demand of Harvard square. I selected Cardullo’s as they are gourmet shoppe with foreign and unknown brands of chocolate.

 

Personal perceptions of each store prior to research:

Cardullo’s is a specialty shop and they pride themselves on providing an array of products from all over the world. You walk into their shop and you can buy jam from Greece, honey from Zambia, wine from California, bread from Somerville, and crackers from Latvia. When I think of Cardullo’s, I begin to have images of chocolates from far away, companies and brands I have never encountered before, and high prices. I generally would go here if I am looking for something new to try or window shopping to see what new items they have.

As for CVS, in my mind they are a one stop shop. I can buy toiletry items, have my prescription filled, and purchase chocolate all at the same time. I believe they have fair and equivalent prices for all of their products, so I generally don’t worry about getting the best deal when I shop here. This is a store where I can find all the popular brands, from food, to medications, to paper towels, and a CVS equivalent of the same brand name product. With the use of CVS yellow sticker prices indicating sale items, it is easy to locate the cheapest product when searching for the best deal.

 

Selection

CVS Chocolate Selection
CVS chocolate selection

All the chocolate you find at CVS is a popular brand name and the CVS brand chocolate. From the Nestle company, I could easily locate KitKat, Crunch, and Butterfinger chocolates. The Mars company selection consisted of M&M’s, Snickers, Dove, Twix, Milky Way, and Mars chocolate. Cadbury, Milka, and Toblerone from the Kraft Company. Throughout the chocolate aisle, I could find these chocolates in bar form, mini snack size, bite size, and in bags (bulk).

Big Five Chocolate Companies [1]
Big Five Chocolate Companies [1]
There were two other prominent chocolate bars to select from, Lindt and Ghirardelli, that are not associated with the large corporations mentioned above. For Ghirardelli, each bar variety that was displayed there was a CVS bar to match it. Not only were the flavors the same, but the packaging style and design are very similar. The bars were not the only ones replicated, but the small bag that contains 12 pieces of small Ghirardelli squares, that can be found in individual packing, was also replicated. As for Lindt, the same thing could be found – for every bar flavor, you could find the CVS brand directly underneath it. Similar to Ghirardelli, the small bag that contains about twenty-five Lindt chocolate truffles was replicated and found beneath it. Even though the CVS brand could be located beneath these chocolates you really have to search for it, as the display makes these choices close to the ground. When searching for chocolate at CVS you are overwhelmed with the choices present and it would be rare that the shelves closer to the ground would be immediately located.

The selection of CVS chocolate was limited to the Ghirardelli and Lindt as I described above, except for the few packages I saw of chocolate covered fruit, chocolate covered nuts, mint chocolate bites.

The chocolate selection at the CVS registers are easily located so while you are waiting in line, you can see the chocolate selection and ponder purchasing a last minute treat. Even at the self-checkout registers there is a small chocolate, candy, and gum rack for very last minute purchases while you are checking your items out. The chocolate choices that can be found here are the most popular purchases such as Snickers, Reese’s, and KitKat.

Cardullo's chocolate wall
Cardullo’s chocolate wall

Cardullo’s has a very wide selection of chocolate from all over the world. They have small batch, craft chocolate maker, and chocolatier chocolates such as Francois Pralus pure origin bars and Chocolat Bonnat single origin bars. They carry craft chocolate makers such as Taza, Vosges, and Chuao. Craft chocolate makers are are companies that creates small batches of chocolate from bean to bar (Coe & Coe 2013). Cardullo’s also carries the Big Five chocolates such as Toblerone, KitKat, D’Or, and Cadbury. Then there are is the popular Belgian chocolate companies such as Godiva, Nehaus, and Dolfin that are regularly in stock.

Looking around at Cardullo’s selections, I was most attracted to the packaging of Francois Pralus pure origin bars. The front of the bar clearly and in the largest text states the country of origin for the cacao used in the bar. Directly under the country’s name you can immediately see what type of cacao was used in preparing this chocolate bar. Third, the chocolate bar also has the longitude and latitude of the location of the farm where the beans are grown! The bars seen at Cardullo’s indicates what we have learned in class, that cacao generally is grown 20 degrees above and below the equator (Presilla 2009:9). The packaging also has a map of the world with an indication as to where this cacao come from to give the consumer a better idea of how far the cacao farm is from your local grocer. I could imagine this map as a tool to indicate how far the chocolate is coming from and why the price costs as much as it does. This was the most expensive bar I could find at Cardullo’s, with a price of $11.99!

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Francois Pralus pure origin chocolate bars

Display

CVS Chocolate aisle selection
CVS chocolate aisle selection

Depending on what kind of chocolate is being displayed, the display can vary at CVS. All of the chocolates that come in bags with multiple small size candy bars can be found in silver metal baskets. The individual chocolate bars are found on the general shelving, slanted at a 30 degree angle. This angle provides the consumer first with the type of chocolate rather than the brand name of the chocolate. This is because your eyes start at the bottom of the bar and move up to the top of the bar where the brand name is positioned.

The way CVS has their chocolate organized is by the most popular at eye level. Their shelving consists of five rows, and the second and third shelves have the most popular brands occupying that space. These shelves are prime at the prime height for most consumers, therefore their eyes are attracted to these shelves first and they generally will purchase a product from here. The other shelves hold the other less popular items and the CVS brand items.

As a consumer, I personally did not think much about what is being used to display the chocolate at CVS prior to this research. However, when comparing it to Cardullo’s, it is now more striking to me how plain and unattractive the displays are for chocolate at CVS. For chocolate that is known as the the food of the gods (Coe & Coe 2013)! The display at Cardullo’s was slightly more attractive, and that was not on the part of the shop, it is on the part of the product. Many of the packaging from the different companies were bright, attractive, and stood out from each other. Since the packaging was more attractive, this is what made the display more attractive.

What was interesting about the Lindt, Ghirardelli, and CVS knock-off brand of both of these chocolates, they were located in the front of the store. The display at the front of the store did start off the chocolate aisle, but it is also a prime place for the store clerks to keep an eye on their most expensive chocolate.

At Cardullo’s, the display of chocolate is very different than what I saw in CVS. First, you find no chocolates in bags. Almost all the chocolate is sold individually and in bar form only. Second, all the chocolate bars were kept in their original manufacturing boxes. These boxes were was used to prop the chocolate up, price of the chocolate, and to ensure the company’s logo is accurately displayed. I did notice some of the shelves did have a black, sleek, metal shelving unit in them, where bars who did not have manufacturing boxes were displayed on. However, this was not common. What was more interesting about these chocolate bars, was the fact that they contained no prices on them.

I personally was shocked to discover that Cardullo’s carries the general Kraft, Mars, and Nestle brands along with the higher end chocolates. My perceptions of this shop is of new foreign brands with high prices. I also stick to one area of their chocolate wall and never wander down the aisle enough to see what else they sell.

Since the checkout area at Cardullo’s is small, I have not found any chocolate that can be purchased last minute at the register. I believe this says something about Cardullo’s general customers, they have the luxury of time to make a full decision before checking out. Cardullo’s is a place where many customers have in mind what they would like to purchase and know their selection is very unique. You cannot walk into this store and buy anything you need, like you can at CVS. However, what you can find at the register is small pocket candies and sticks of marzipan for last minute purchases.

Pricing

The price for an individual chocolate bar varied from $1.99 – $4.19 depending on the brand, flavor, and size. The prices at CVS are easy to read and understand with clear labels. As I mentioned above, there are also yellow price tags indicated sales and promotions throughout the chocolate aisle. If a price could not be located on a chocolate product, I could go to the price check machine at the front of the store to find the price. Overall, the pricing at CVS is easy to read, accurately placed, and a great customer value.

The most expensive bar chocolate I could find at CVS was Ghirardelli chocolate at $4.19 for a single bar. CVS brand, which is a replica of Ghirardelli bar was selling for $3.19 with almost exact packaging.

At Cardullo’s some of the bars of chocolate are easily accessible and labeled with prices. However, it seems that some of the more expensive chocolates do not have their prices clearly labeled. Some of the bars either had no price on them or they were on the back of the bar. Here I feel intimidated going to the cashier to ask them the price of a chocolate bar. If I do have the guts to do it, I try to control my emotions as much as I can and brace myself for an elaborate price for a product that is unknown to me. I feel if I walk in here I should know I am going to pay high prices and should not care about the price of it at all.

CVS is the type of store where I would not be intimidated to go to the cashier and ask for a price check. Cardullo’s, on the other hand, is a store where I would rather not approach the cashier and ask them for a price check. If I do happen to have gathered the courage, I would mentally prepare myself to control my emotions when I hear the price. This may sound extreme, but Cardullo’s is not a value store and many of their items are priced high.

CVS pricing for Cadbury chocolate bar
CVS pricing for Cadbury chocolate bar
Cardullo's Cadbury chocolate price
Cardullo’s Cadbury chocolate price

What I found most interesting as I was doing my research, CVS was selling Cadbury chocolate for a higher price than Cardullo’s was! The price difference was about 30 cents, but still important difference to note. One would think that purchasing chocolate at CVS would be the cheapest and best way to go, but this case proved otherwise!

 

Target Audience

After a thorough analysis of the chocolate selection at CVS I believe that their chocolate is branded, packaged, and priced for the average consumer of chocolate. Prior to this class, I would have been perfectly fine purchasing chocolate from CVS, whether from the Big Five or CVS brand as they generally had the best prices. CVS chocolate is for the consumer who may lack time and would need to purchase their chocolate, while running other errands, instead of going to a speciality shop. CVS chocolate is for the consumer who may lack finances to purchase any chocolate that is over $4.50, so they are limited to what they may consume. Additionally, offering chocolate in bulk, bags, is an ideal product for many consumers who believe they are getting a deal when buying a large quantity of items.

Cardullo’s is a shop that carries many imported goods as well as locally produced goods. They cater to the consumer who likes to purchase foreign goods, possibly a consumer who misses a certain product from home. Or possibly for a consumer who once travelled to a specific place and wants to enjoy those products again in their own home. Or for a consumer who has never travelled to such a destination, but can have a try of it through their foods. What ever the case, I see this as a store who promises fond memories for the consumer who purchases their goods.

Francois Pralus, the bar from Sao Tome and Principe, is made with Forastero chocolate. As we have learned and discussed in class, Forastero is the type of cacao that is used to make 90% of all chocolate consumed today (Presilla 2009:72). With that in mind, for a bar that costs $11.99 I am not sure it is worth it to purchase and consume a bulk cacao variety for that price.

 

Hybridization

Chocolate has been transformed dramatically over the years through hybridization or creolization. Hybridization or creolization is, a combination of multiple cultures to create a new and unique culture. This is evident in chocolate in America as we can see the addition of ingredients only palatable to the American consumers such as peanut butter. “Entirely new, creolized culture was taking form that partook elements from both cultures …” (Coe & Coe 2013:113).

At Cardullo’s you can see the wide array of hybridization of chocolate with many unique choices. Chuao chocolate was the brand that stood out to me the most that had such a grand display of hybridization of chocolate. They had a selection of chocolate potato chips, popcorn chocolate, rocky road chocolate, s’more chocolate, cinnamon cereal, and so much more! As a matter of fact, I could not locate a single plain chocolate bar from Chuao company! With the varying types they had to offer, it is hard not to notice these.

Chuao chocolate bar selection [2]
Chuao chocolate bar selection [2]
While at CVS, you can see the hybridization as well, but not with as unique flavors Cardullo’s is offering. Peanut butter was the most common additional ingredient added to the chocolate that could be found at CVS. In second, caramel was found to be the additional ingredient in many chocolate bars. This small variety of hybrid chocolate is uninspiring and uniform. If a consumer was shopping for chocolate at CVS and looking for something new to try, CVS would not be able to provide that variety.

In conclusion, CVS provides the popular companies chocolates at a low price, with low variety. While at Cardullo’s they provide not only the bean to farm chocolate, but also popular companies, all on the same shelf! If you are looking for something new to try, stop at Cardullo’s while in Harvard square. If you are looking for the typical American chocolate, stop at CVS to purchase your chocolate.

 

Disclaimer:

I would like to make one last point of my research – My research at CVS and Cardullo’s may not be accurate of their general display, stocking techniques, or general product variety. A majority of my research was completed in a two day period, a very short window of time. I want to take a moment to acknowledge that I may have been at their stores on an empty day, prior to shipment arriving. This could have skewed my research and some points discussed in this post. Please let me know if you have realized other products or if you have any comments!

 

Works Cited:

[1] Martin, Carla D. 2015. Lecture 7: The Rise of Big Chocolate and Race for the Global Market on March 11, 2015.

[2] Chuao Chocolatier, chocolate selection. http://chuaochocolatier.com/chocolate-bars.html.

Presilla, Maricel E. 2009. The New Taste of Chocolate Revised: A Cultural and Natural History of Cacao with Recipes. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press.

Coe, Sophie D., and Michael D. Coe. 2013. True History of Chocolate. 3rd edition. London: Thames and Hudson.

Goody, Jack. 1982. Industrial Food: Towards the Development of a World Cuisine. pp. 72-88.

Nesto, Bill. 2010. Discovering Terroir in the World of Chocolate. Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and Culture. 10(1):131-135.

–All photography was taken by the author of this post. —

Comparing Brands and Products Found at Chain Stores

As we’ve discussed this semester, throughout history, chocolate has grown from a form of currency in Mesoamerica, to a drink for the elite in Europe, into the solid form we know and love today that makes up the chocolate industry that brings in an estimated 110 billion dollars every year, according to “Cocoa-nomics”, a CNN article that is apart of their CNN Freedom Project. This industry is made up of large manufacturing companies, such as Hershey and Mars, chocolatiers (who use already-made chocolate to create something new), and craft chocolate makers, who are small companies and are usually bean-to-bar manufacturers. All three types produce chocolate that is, in most cases, distributed nationally, or even internationally, but there are a few companies that only sell locally. Most big name chain stores like CVS, Wal-Mart, and 7-11 carry only the chocolate made by the “big five” manufacturing conglomerates: Hershey, Mars, Ferrero, Cadbury, and Nestle, and possibly a few various other smaller, yet still internationally recognizable, brands. One would be hard-pressed to find chocolate from craft chocolate manufacturers in big chain stores, however, some national stores that pride themselves on stocking smaller, more socially conscious brands, such as Whole Foods and Central Market, will carry products from these craft chocolate companies. My goal was to analyze the selection of chocolate that a local brand name store, in this case CVS, carried and what kinds of different aspects of each brand I noticed when looking at them.

Walking into a chain store like CVS, it is easy to spot the candy aisle with a broad assortment of candies, and more specifically, chocolates that people have come to be familiar with. At first glance, there are dozens of options for one to choose from, whether it is Kit Kat, Milky Way, Toblerone, or one of many other choices offered; however, after a quick glance at the back of the wrapper, it is possible to see that almost all of the available choices are all made by the same two or three companies. Milky Way, Twix, Three Musketeers, Dove, and M&M are all manufactured by Mars Inc., while Kit Kat, Reese’s, Whoppers, Symphony, and others are manufactured by Hershey. That represents a large portion of chocolate that people consume, and it’s all made by only two companies, so while there is an illusion of choice when it comes to chocolate, it is an industry consistently dominated by two or three companies. The companies that have established themselves as the major players in the chocolate industry have, without coincidence, been in business since the very early days of solid chocolate, and in some cases like Nestle and Lindt, have invented the processes that made some of the products that are popular today possible. Hershey and Mars have a long history between them, and actually used to be allies before becoming big rivals in the industry. In The Emperors of Chocolate: Inside the Secret World of Hershey and Mars, by Joël Glenn Brenner, he details the little known trading of information between the two companies during World War II which changed the chocolate landscape forever. Hershey sent technology and information to Mars (for M&M’s) in order to help them manufacture for the military, but Mars “exploited the opportunity. Brenner notes that, “Few people outside the industry are aware of this part of M&M’s success. Neither company is quick to advertise it. But the truth is, the histories of these two industry rivals are closely intertwined,” and goes on to make the bold claim that, “one could argue that Mars would not have succeeded without Hershey, and vice versa” (Brenner 48).

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While the “big five” companies have been around for close to a century, if not longer, last few decades has brought about the rise of craft chocolate makers, who also benefit from the rise of both social and health consciousness. While each company has a different reason for doing what they do, craft companies have caught on with customers who strive to make an impact on changing how the chocolate and food industry treats both laborers and the environment. A Washington Post article detailed the founding of several different craft chocolate companies and the reasons behind each, and each had different motivations for why they decided to start making chocolate. Adam Kavalier, who launched Undone Chocolate with his wife, wanted to merge his knowledge of science with his love for chocolate. According to the article, Kavalier, who has a PhD in plant biochemistry, “started looking at the chemical makeup of chocolate using a process called mass spectrometry. He has placed an emphasis on antioxidants and on determining how the type of bean and the way it’s treated affect the amount of antioxidants that end up in the chocolate.” He took his expertise from his educational background and turned it into a successful craft chocolate company. Another example from the Washington Post article was that, “When Colin and Sarah Hartman, the married co-founders of Concept C, decided to launch their brand, they had a different health interest in mind: that of the rain forests in Sarah’s native Brazil.” They both were in graduate school together at Penn, Sarah for sustainability, Colin for business, and came up with an idea to use chocolate to help create environmental sustainability and restoration of the rain forests in Brazil, where they frequently travel to do research and build their brand.

Although the same few companies make all of these popular chocolate products found in stores, one thing that is interesting to note from these different brands is how they are marketed to their target audience. For instance, although M&M’s and Dove Chocolates are both manufactured by Mars, Dove is branded as a smoother, more elegant, higher class product (which is reflected by the price point), whereas M&M’s are more of an everyman’s candy, good for any type of person or event, and it is a lower price point which goes hand-in-hand with how it is marketed. I noticed that the products that were branded with a sense of high class to them (Cadbury Chocolate, for example) were also priced higher than the standard, familiar products. The marketing and packaging of these products was one of the main factors in determining at what kind of price point they were available to consumers.

Cadbury Milk Cadbury 73.4¢/oz
Symphony Hershey 55.8¢/oz
Hershey’s Milk Hershey 53.9¢/oz
Hershey’s White Hershey 59.3¢/oz
Russell Stover Assrmt. Russell Stover 83.3¢/oz
Lindt Assorted Lindt 210¢/oz
Ghirardelli Caramel Ghirardelli 109¢/oz
Milky Way Mars 46.7¢/oz

As one can see from this chart, the companies that do a very good job of branding themselves as luxury, high class brands (i.e. Ghirardelli and Lindt), are able to price their products a little higher than normal because they have done a great job marketing their product as superior and very fine. Also to be noted from this chart is the fact that two companies that pride themselves on signature packaging, Russell Stover and Cadbury, with the packaged boxes and purple wrappers, respectively, were able to also have their prices be higher than the standard chocolate bar manufactured by Hershey’s or Mars. Those two companies, two of the biggest chocolate producers in the world, sell enough chocolate by sheer volume that they don’t depend on the higher price points in order to gain revenue, like a Ghirardelli might. This means that their packaging and branding is able to be a little more “common” and less flashy and convincing because their brands are well-known enough to sell without those things. The packaging of these products from the “big five” found in stores like CVS is very different from bars we have in class seen from smaller, craft companies. Only one bar in the store had any reference to their process for making the chocolate, and that was Ghirardelli, and none of the bars examined had any mention of where their cacao beans came from or whether or not they were from Fair Trade production.

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The packaging details the process which we learned in class, from selecting beans all the way to conching, in order to get the texture and melting right on the finished product. Many craft chocolate companies include where they get their beans and advertise the fact that they value social issues like workers’ rights and the environmental impact of their manufacturing, but information on those things were nowhere to be found on the packaging of the large brands’ products. They don’t need to sell their brand on those specific things like certain craft companies do to attract a niche group of customers, so they leave it off their packaging. Despite this omission on their packaging, on Mars.com and Thehersheycompany.com, the official websites of Mars and Hershey, respectively, they do have sections where they describe what kinds of efforts they make to ensure both environmental sustainability and human rights. In this day and age, it is demanded of companies to be open and transparent in their business practices in order to show their customers and the chocolate/food community that they are proponents of Fair Trade practices.

Wrapping up (no pun intended), I think that while there is an appearance of diversity within the chocolate, a lot of the products that people see everyday and have come to know and enjoy are really under the manufacturing umbrella of the same two or three companies. The main takeaway from the analysis of the chocolate selection at a big chain store like CVS, is that a large part of the differential in price comes from how the brand chooses to market and package its products. This is why the advertising aspect of the chocolate industry is so crucial to a company and product’s success, and also why their ads come under so much scrutiny to get them perfect. Smaller, craft companies are very likely to use their morals and values to attract a certain customer base, whereas the established, big name brands have more success playing to the strength of their brands to sell product. Overall, the products tasted a very similar quality, and the price point is really a reflection of how the companies choose to brand, market, and advertise their products.

Works Cited

Brenner, Joël Glenn. The Emperors of Chocolate: Inside the Secret World of Hershey and Mars. New York: Random House, 1999. Print.

Krystal, Becky. “Washington’s Craft Chocolate Industry Continues to Grow.” Washington Post 10 Feb. 2015: n. pag. Washington Post. Web.

Schumm, Laura. “The Wartime Origins of the M&M.” History Channel. N.p., 2 June 2014. Web. 6 May 2015.

Torre, Inez, and Bryony Jones. “Cocoa-nomics.” CNN. N.p., 27 Feb. 2014. Web.

What Happens when Hipsters Make Chocolate?

In 2010, Mark Grief wrote an article for the New York Times investigating the contemporary hipster[1]. He questioned the rationale behind the lack of self-identifying hipsters, and the origin of the term hipster as an insult. Ultimately, he made two important discoveries. First that the word hipster does not necessarily refer to the “couch-surfing, old-clothes-wearing” youths who appear most authentically hipster. Instead, the term often refers to a collective group of young, trendy, hypercritical people. Second, that hipsters are dependent on their knowledge. According to Grief, “hipster knowledge compensates for economic immobility”, implying that outlandish knowledge of a specific craft is one of the hipster’s most valuable tools[2].

So why is this relevant to Chocolate? Well, in the past decade, a few hipsters have entered into the world of chocolate making. However, in two cases, these hipsters are using their knowledge to churn out incredibly defensible small batch bars. Ladies and gentlemen, I introduce to you The Mast Brothers and the Dick and Taylor chocolate companies. Since their conception, both have become incredibly popular as a result of marketing and motive, not necessarily taste. Ultimately, however, the impact of their popularity has been positive. The companies have pioneered and motivated a new subculture within chocolate producers—attracting a new demographic to artisan chocolate makers— as well as continue to promote fair trade practices, localized processing, and ethical labor standards.

Subculture is a complicated topic to define among chocolate makers. It is inextricably linked to style, yet it is more complicated than pure aesthetics. According to Dick Hebdige, subculture is made up of “expressive forms and rituals of subordinate groups”[3]. For the purpose of this piece, subculture is the stylistic expressions and rituals of the chocolate maker. More simply, it is how the chocolate maker processes, markets, and sells their chocolate. In order to evaluate how these two chocolate makers have developed and pioneered a new subculture, it is pertinent to evaluate the chocolate makers themselves.

Mast brothers pictureLet’s first observe the Mast Brothers. The most obvious of the brother’s appearance is their beards. Grouped with the newsboy cap, large eyeglasses, and a brick backdrop in their workshop in Brooklyn—these stylistic choices categorize the Mast Brothers as being part of hipster culture. Pictured right is the second image on Google when you search for “hipster”. See the resemblance?hipsters

Next, we have Adam Dick and Richard Taylor. Similarly to the Mast Brothers, they both have a noticeable amount of facial hair, and big eyeglasses. Adam wears a stocking cap, but instead of a white double-breasted chef jacket or casual button down, they both are wearing plaid flannel shirts. Interestingly, both the Mast Brothers and Dick and Taylor look quite similar in outward appearance. Not to mention they both share a similar interest in chocolate.

dickandtaylor1Chocolate is their craft. However, while outward appearances and interest in the craft of chocolate making do not put their chocolate on par with chocolate makers like Scharffen Berger and Rogue Chocolate, their participation in hipster culture has made them wildly successful within the media. To heavy media users like the population of hipster subculture, social media is a channel in which to promote foods—and in many cases, fair trade, agriculturally sustainable foods. I mentioned earlier that the emergence of hipster artisans is playing a positive role in the chocolate industry. Well, here is where things get interesting.

Cacao beans are a very similar commodity to coffee beans. Both are often grouped with buzzwords like “sourcing”, “fair trade”, and “labor standards” as a result of raised awareness of low agricultural labor standards in West Africa and other high cacao production areas. Increased globalization has disconnected consumers from their food by hiding the process that leads to the final product. Large coffee companies such as Kraft do not source their beans through fair trade purchases[4]. Instead, the largest coffee company in the world continues to exploit farmers and agricultural laborers[5]. However, the hipster culture began to promote the fair-trade label in the early 2000s. Since then, support for fair-trade coffee has increased substantially[6].

The chocolate industry has seen similar results. The small batch companies like Mast Brothers and Dick and Taylor initially appeal to a niche audience, but with growing social media, their impact on fair-trade and labor standards of cacao farmers is substantial. Cacao will soon catch up to coffee with regard to popularity of fair-trade products.

In an article by Cronin, McCarthy, and Collins, they analyze the hipster food-based resistance strategies against large-scale production by companies like Tyson, Kraft, and Hershey’s[7]. Within their research, they note that the two of the most prominent resistance strategies among hipsters is brand awareness and avoidances, as well as the decommodification of mass-produced goods. In other words, they avoid well-known big company brands, and substitute away from products that have been mass-produced and super-processed to “reject corporate-capitalist ‘junk food’”[8]. They look for smaller brand names and marketing that appeals not just to the brand, but to the artisanal qualities of the food product itself[9].

mast brothers chocolateThe Mast Brothers and Dick and Taylor Chocolate are aiding in bringing to chocolate a brand that is not mass-produced. In the United States, there are really only a handful of small-batch producers of chocolate, and these select few often do not market their products to a subculture or demographic that will openly discuss the product’s social and economic significance. As we look at the packaging for the Mast Brothers, it is immediately apparent that their branding isn’t all about the brand itself. The bars are marketed as pieces of art. Each hand wrapped with a different piece of paper. The paper itself, while not apparent though a photo, has the feel of old parchment from before the 20th century. The Dick and Taylor bars, while less flashy, also appear as though they are crafted as a work of art. They boast an old time sketch of a shipyard where a boat is being build. A nod to their past lives as sailboat craftsmen.Dickandtaylor chocolate

When contrasted with a large, mass-produced bar like Hershey’s, it is simple to see the difference in brand management. The localized, bean-to-bar, fair-trade bars of the two hipster companies concentrate much less on the brand, and more on the artisanal qualities of the bar. This is important when you consider the aforementioned qualities that hipsters look for when substituting away from big brands. Furthermore, the Hershey’s bar itself is almost exclusively about the brand. HersheysThe design around the bar has no artful qualities, aside from the brand there is only a dark brown background and a small caption of “milk chocolate”. Cadbury has a similar design on their candy bar. On the bar’s front, a solid color with the mega-brand’s name plastered across it. Again, the concentration is on the brand, not the craft. However, on the Cadbury bar, they print a fair trade label on the front in an attempt to hide any traces of exploitation in the companies past, present, or future. Yet, on cadburythe hipster bars, there is no stamp. The reasoning for this is that the small-batch chocolate makers work so closely with the source of their beans that they don’t need the reaffirmation on the bar itself. Both of the companies directly source their chocolate from small farms. In the case of the Mast Brothers, the two bearded chocolate makers travelled to the Dominican Republic to meet their cacao farming partners, and give them a taste of the final product. The hipster chocolate scene is far from needing a stamp that notifies chocolate enthusiasts about the source of their cacao. It is inherently recognized as a result trust built through thousands of completely hand-crafted chocolate bars.

I had mentioned toward the beginning of this piece that the taste was not the key component of their chocolate. This is for good reason. The chocolate that these hipster companies are producing are not the best in the world. Critics have reviewed the Mast Brothers and deemed their chocolate inconsistent, defective, and just plain bad[10]. Yet, their chocolate is used in restaurants like French Laundry, and other top tier establishments. What is most important with regard to these two trendy companies is their moral and ethical practices. The results may not be of the same consistent quality as Rogue Chocolate, or Amadei in Italy, but what they produce is a result of fair labor practices and a strong knowledge of cacao’s origins. Their gift to the chocolate industry is not only their product, but the messages, the new target demographic, and raised awareness. The Mast Brothers and Dick and Taylor Chocolate act as domestic beacons, hidden in hipster clothing and facial hair that help— if just a little — guide the way to a better chocolate industry.

Works Cited

[1] Greif, Mark. “The Hipster in the Mirror.” New York Times 3 (2010): 2014.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Hebdige, Dick. “Subculture: The meaning of style.” Critical Quarterly 37.2 (1995): 120-124.

[4] Howard, Philip H. “Visualizing Fair Trade Coffee.” Michigan State University. 2011.

[5] Martin, C. 2015. “African and African American Studies 119x: Chocolate, Culture, and the Politics of Food”. Emerson Hall, Harvard University. Lecture.

[6] Featherstone, Liza. “In Brooklyn, Hipsters Sip ‘Fair Trade’ Brews.” New York Times. 2007.

[7] Cronin, James M., Mary B. McCarthy, and Alan M. Collins. “Covert distinction: how hipsters practice food-based resistance strategies in the production of identity.” Consumption Markets & Culture 17.1 (2014): 2-28.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Giller, Megan. “Chocolate Experts Hate Mast Brothers: Why do specialty shops refuse to carry one of the best-known craft chocolate brands in the country?” Slate. March 2015.

Figures

Figure 1. http://behindthescenes.nyhistory.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/brothers.jpg

Figure 2. http://thesocietypages.org/feminist/files/2014/07/about3.jpg

Figure 3. https://whatshotinchocolate.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/dickandtaylor1.jpg

Figure 4. http://lovelypackage.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/mast1.jpg

Figure 5. http://www.centralmarket.com/getattachment/74bf0659-bf7d-48fd-83fc-99295fc46002/Dick-Taylor-Takes-Chocolate-Back-to-Its-Roots.aspx

Figure 6. https://www.hersheys.com/images/products/3480/hershey-bars-milk-chocolate_md.png

Figure 7. http://www.homeduuka.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/cadbury-dairy-milk-v2-1.jpg

Women, Sexuality, and Body Image in Chocolate Advertising

It is difficult to tell whether advertising evolves in response to changing consumer preferences or if the advertisements themselves shape new preferences.  Yet, it is undeniable that advertisements for many products, chocolate being a prime example, have become more nuanced in how they entice consumers and reflect the norms that pervade our society.   The days of Rowntree’s ‘Special Mothers Campaign’ to blatantly target insecure mothers are past (Robertson, 21) but there is no shortage of television commercials that show distressed children being pacified by “loving” mothers with chocolate.  For this post, I will analyze a Godiva advertisement and compare it to one generated by my group in order to analyze the role of gender, body image and sex appeal in advertising.  I argue that our advertisement which strips away the refinement in the Godiva still and also uses a scruffy male rather than a female model reveals inherent associations we make between chocolate, gender, sexuality, perception of beauty, and body.

Blog 3 Godiva ladyThe Godiva advertisement use both bold and subtle persuasion techniques to appeal to women in the advertisement pictured.  The most striking component of the advertisement is the woman pictured: she embodies the modern perception of beauty with sparkling blue eyes, shapely features, slim face, and full lips.  The woman herself is enough to catch the
attention of any casual passerby, both male and female.  The slogan is also catchy: “Every Woman is One Part Godiva,” and it indicates that the advertisement is intended to appeal to women by associating body with Godiva chocolate.  In an age when body insecurity is pervasive among many young women, this slogan encapsulates the desires of much of the ad’s audience.  Yet, there is much more subtlety that speaks to larger advertising trends in the chocolate industry.  For example, the color and lighting of the advertisement is dark and rich, giving the still a sensual feel that reflects Godiva’s desire to connect their chocolate to female sexuality.  This hyper-sexuality is evident in the pose the model pictured displays: her eyes seem slightly hooded; her fingers are curled leisurely; and her mouth is ajar enough to take a nibble of the chocolate but not wide enough to convey any effort.  This advertisement clearly associates the “ideal” woman with a shallow perception of beauty and sexual response in commonplace acts.

Slide1Our advertisement was designed to contrast the one created by Godiva in multiple ways, primarily through the type of model and the slogan.  The model pictured is an average-looking male with unkempt facial hair and a plain blue shirt.  Yet, the fact that he is male is not the only difference, as evidence by the Dove ad pictured below; it is the blatant sexualization of chocolate advertisements that is clearly missing from our ad.  The slogan is identical to the actual Godiva slogan but replaces “Woman” with “Man.”  Through these two perversions, our advertisement is radically different from the original.  The overt sexual component is almost entirely diminished, and it is almost comical to insinuate that men associate body image and chocolate.  Even the subtleties revealed in the Godiva image are different: the background color is a bright blue, indicating a playful, rather than sultry, mood, and the man is gripping a massive chocolate bar like a sandwich rather than with the sensual delicacy of the woman in the other advertisement.

The juxtaposition of these two advertisements exposes trends in advertising and consumer preferences that pervade modern society.  The Godiva advertisement targets women, uses overt sexuality, and associates the product with body image.  Just as Divine Chocolate presents farmers as “cosmopolitan consumers of luxury goods” (Leissle, 121), the Godiva advertisement impresses upon its audience a sense of desire that is in direct contradiction to reality.  The advertisement that we created represents the antithesis and reveals the biases of consumers.  Our ad with its scruffy model, bright background, and almost goofy targeting of men bucks the socio-historical trend of chocolate advertising that hyper-sexualizes and targets women.

 

References

http://files.coloribus.com/files/adsarchive/part_950/9500755/file/dove-chocolate-dove-chocolate-small-50065.jpg

http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/happy-young-man-eating-chocolate-11629814.jpg

Kristy Leissle (2012): Cosmopolitan cocoa farmers: refashioning Africa in Divine Chocolate advertisements, Journal of African Cultural Studies, 24:2, 121-139

Robertson, E. (2009): Chocolate, women, and empire.  Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.

Chance the Wrapper? The Role of Packaging in the Industrialization of Chocolate

The industrialization of food over time was a complex process that has led to one undeniable fact: the relationship that humanity experiences with the food it consumes has evolved rapidly in the last century.  This process can be decomposed into various components that each contributed to this changing relationship, and one of the more important innovations of industrialization was the creative use of packaging to increase and solidify the consumer base.  Chocolate wrappers were specifically transformative because they transitioned chocolate from a relatively uniform product to brands that could be easily distinguished by consumers.  The packaging was important in the development of chocolate as an industrialized food over time because it allowed vendors to facilitate the movement from open markets to retail shops; target specific consumer demographics; and project an image to create brand loyalty.

The movement to retail sale of chocolate was facilitated by the use of packaging because the chocolate wrappers served as a medium of advertisement that allowed consumers to differentiate between products easily.  The shift from open markets to retail shops was significant to the industrialization of food as a whole because it led to a “considerable degree of homogenization” (Brooks p. 85).  With regards to chocolate, the shift to retail was accompanied by uniformity between different batches of the same product.  However, this shift would not have been possible without the growth of unique chocolate packaging.  In the produce market system of food sale, the consumer was able to purchase based on his or her interpretation of signals in the marketplace.  If one seller had a number of consumers crowded around him, his product was likely to be of quality.  And the only way one would know which product was sold by this vendor would be to physically purchase it from him; once the food left the marketplace, it was difficult to distinguish from other similar products sold by different vendors.

The Yorkie Bar

The use of unique packaging transformed this relationship because it allowed consumers to distinguish similar products sold by different vendors at a glance.  The ability of the consumer to quickly differentiate enhanced the retail movement because shops could now sell products from multiple vendors and present the consumer with an expanded set of choices in chocolate consumption.

The retail movement broadened consumer options for chocolate consumption, and companies were now faced with the challenge of differentiating themselves and attracting customers.  The packaging of their chocolate was important to this goal because it allowed companies to communicate with the consumer and target specific demographics with their message.  An example of demographic targeting is the original Yorkie bar; by stating “It’s not for girls!” Yorkie attracted young males who strived to establish their manhood and identity to their product.  Many consumers do not look past this, often picking the product that interests them immediately (Cahyorini and Rusfian p.12).  For many men, the Yorkie slogan proved to pique their interest enough to warrant immediate purchase.

Fry’s Turkish Delight

Another common target of chocolate companies was young girls, as evidence by this Fry’s Turkish Delight wrapper.  The bright pink wrapper with the gold star preys upon the princess fantasies often fed to young girls.  The targeting power of chocolate packaging underscored the formation of a consumer base and was, therefore, essential to the industrialization of chocolate.

While some chocolate wrappers boldly sought out certain types of consumers, others employed more subtle techniques to project their image and solidify their place in the lives of consumers.  I primary example of this is the standard Cadbury’s Dairy Milk chocolate bar.  The packaging is simple, yet elegant, and the purple coloring functions as a tribute to the royal crown.  Since the color of the packaging is the first part of the product that the brain registers (Beneke et. al. p.57), the royal association is foundational to the image that Cadbury wants to project: its place as the English chocolate.  It evokes fierce loyalty to queen and country, values cherished by the British, and associates consumption of Cadbury chocolate with those values.  Allegiance to Cadbury became symbolic of faithfulness to Britain, and this fueled mass consumption.

Original Cadbury’s Dairy Milk

Chocolate wrappers facilitated industrialization because they revolutionized consumer relations to chocolate consumption.  Creative use of packaging was able to evoke emotions of manhood, womanhood, and country.  It expanded consumer choice and conveyed messages from producer to consumer without direct contact between the two.  The chocolate wrapper, now taken for granted, underpinned the industrialization of chocolate and facilitated the growth of the widely consumed products we know today.

 

 

References

Yorkie: http://www.collectorsweekly.com/articles/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/CWMYorkie.jpg

Turkish Delight: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/3/36/Frys-Turkish-Delight-Wrapper-Small.jpg

Cadbury: https://www.cadbury.co.uk/~/media/cadburydev/com/images/story/HERITAGE_IMAGES_0021_24_IMAGE_PURPLE_CDM_BAR.png

Goody, Jack (2013).  Industrial Food: Toward the Development of a World Cuisine.  New York, NY: Routledge.

Cahyorini, Astri, and Rusfian, Effy Z. (2011). The effect of packaging design on impulsive buying.  Journal of Administrative Science and Organization, 18(1), 11-21.

Beneke, Justine, et.al. (2015).  Chocolate, colour and consideration: an exploratory study of consumer response to packaging variaetion in the South African confectionery sector.  International Journal of Marketing Studies, 7(1), 55-65.

Chocolate as a Luxury throughout the Ages

Today’s modern chocolate consumer revels in the extravagance of a society determined to have more than it can ever need, buy more than it can ever afford, and eat more than it can ever want, especially when it comes to chocolate. This newfound availability of a good once regarded as luxury, has now transformed chocolate to what many now consider mere candy. Gone are the nutrition, originality, and reverence once associated with the “food of the gods,” and what is left is nothing more than a sweet treat tainted with excessive amounts fat and cheap additives (Parkin, “What Are You Eating: Snickers”). And although many celebrate the “revolutionary” progression of chocolate from a food of the elite to one now accessible by all, the idea that chocolate is ubiquitous cannot be further from the truth. In fact, chocolate is still exclusive to the highest social classes, a luxury good through and through, and even with the worldwide rise in chocolate production, pure, high quality chocolate – that of which is now labeled as “artisan” or “craft” – is almost solely intended for elite consumption.

While the well-to-do savor their “bean-to-bars,” the general population must settle with the everyday “Hershey’s kisses” or “Milky ways,” poor substitutes that were created to satisfy the masses (Parkin, “What Are You Eating: Snickers”). Nevertheless, the degree to which this dichotomy extends is but a reflection of the past. The social arrangements observed today parallel that of previous societies throughout history, from the Aztec’s strict confinement of chocolate consumption within their social elite to the European’s emphasis on reserving the food for the upper class; the continuation of these previously observed patterns, as embodied by the range of products offered by vendors on either end of the social spectrum, indicates that chocolate still remains the luxury food it has always been, a source of indulgence for the rich and a commodity to strive towards for the poor (Coe, Coe 86-87, 159-160).

One does not need to venture very far into the chocolate industry to experience the glaring disparity between the quality of chocolate offered in the everyday convenience store and that of a gourmet, specialty shop. Here in Boston, the two are represented by the local CVS and South End’s very own Formaggio’s Kitchen, the first of which is a popular retailer across the US whereas the latter exists only in one other location – the elite community of New York City’s urban sprawl. Thus, before the chocolate itself is even considered, the sheer accessibility of these respective markets indicates the type of merchandise sold at each. It is no surprise then that the chocolate products offered at CVS differs not only in composition, but also in price and packaging from the luxury bars organized in neat rows at Formaggio’s.

CVS Display
The wide variety of brand name chocolate offered at a CVS Pharmacy

CVS Caremark is one of the largest pharmacy convenience stores in the country and because it caters to all of society, everywhere, the retailer must offer a wide range of commodities to satisfy their broad clientele. In other words, they must stock their shelves with every type of brand name chocolate produced here in the States; from “Snickers” bars produced by Mars to the iconic “Hershey’s” milk chocolate bar produced by Hershey itself, CVS has it all (Hess, “Most Popular Halloween Candy in the USA”). However, although the diversity offered at any one of these convenience stores is impressive, the majority of their chocolate shares a single commonality: they are all composed entirely of milk chocolate, often supplemented with a large proportion of butter, unwarranted amounts of sugar, extra flavoring like vanilla, and other fillings such as nougat for the popular “Milky Way” (“Candy and Chocolate Bars Compared: Hershey’s, Nestle and Mars Nutrition Facts”; Parkin, “What Are You Eating: Snickers”). Many would argue that the added contents are what make these products as well-known as they have become, and even more claim that they crave this type of chocolate specifically for the peanut-caramel insides. Unfortunately for these misguided individuals, the reality is that these very fillings are exactly what prevents the typical “Reese’s” peanut butter cup from serving as a healthy addition to one’s life, and instead makes them the cheap, fattening candy that the average consumer can afford (“Candy and Chocolate Bars Compared: Hershey’s, Nestle and Mars Nutrition Facts”). This practice of mixing inexpensive ingredients into chocolate to help make it more affordable is analogous to the origins of chocolate consumption in Mesoamerica, setting the precedent that impure chocolate is associated with lower quality food (Coe, Coe 86-87; Presilla 20). In fact, the Aztecs, in preparing cacao, recognized that “the inferior product…was mixed with nixtamalli and water” to form a “chocolate-with-maize gruel,” but if the mixture was “cheapened by too much corn or thinned with too much water,” then all of the “effort would be for naught” (Coe, Coe 86-87; Presilla 20). The same concept has returned in modern form, and even though society has moved past the practice of combining corn and chocolate, the artificial ingredients used now are both worse and in larger quantity. As such, the brand name chocolate that dominates the market today are not what they all claim to be – rather than serving as energy-boosting power bars, these candies are the epitome of second-rate scraps, the culmination of the industry’s sly advertising and deceit (Hess, “Most Popular Halloween Candy in the USA”).

Snickers Chocolate nutrition information includes many artificial ingredients
Snickers nutrition information includes many artificial ingredients

The goods offered at CVS can be identified for their lower quality merely by taking a look down the aisle; all of the chocolate is sold in bulk, the wrappings are colorful and meant to entice children, and the price tags that accompany any purchase fail to draw attention as well (Hess, “Most Popular Halloween Candy in the USA”). Indeed, everything chocolate at the convenience store is affordable and cheap, and it is fitting that the majority of these products are regarded as mere candy. This type of marketing in itself is suggestive of the type of goods advertised to the common shopper. Nowhere in the store will one find pure, gourmet chocolate like that from Formaggio’s Kitchen; instead, Halloween candy, sweets to be given out, and maybe a small treat on the go is all that is offered at CVS (Hess, “Most Popular Halloween Candy in the USA”). While there is nothing wrong with merchandise that serves these purposes, the chocolate here will never compare to the “craft” chocolate that should be enjoyed at leisure in the quiet luxury of one’s home.

"Craft" chocolate displayed on shelves at Formaggio's Kitchen in Boston
“Craft” chocolate displayed on shelves at Formaggio’s Kitchen in Boston

Walking into Formaggio’s Kitchen, one is immediately transported to the most charming little shop in rural France, the quaintest street market in Spain, and the most curious ingredient store in Italy. Everything offered here is exotic, from the slabs of cheese on the wall to the rows of extra virgin olive oil on display. It is every culinary enthusiast’s dream. To top it all off, Formaggio’s Kitchen also boasts an impressive shelf of chocolate, each bar made entirely “bean-to-bar” by some of the most skilled confectioners around. Thus, it goes with saying that these products provide the purest experience of how chocolate should be prepared: made from scratch with the most traditional methods using fresh, unroasted cocoa beans of the highest quality (Williams, Eber 168-170). The finished result consists primarily of cacao and a small amount of cane sugar, and as expected, is simply delicious – anyone missing out is really missing the point of chocolate altogether. By foregoing the daunting list of artificial ingredients that are usually included in commercial products, the “craft” chocolate only offered at Formaggio’s represents the other end of the social spectrum and the true meaning of the saying “less is more,” much like the “unadulterated chocolate fit for lords” in Aztec society (Coe, Coe 86-87; Presilla 20; Williams, Eber 168-170). For these reasons, “chocolate” as a general term applies most suitably to these higher quality foods, and since only the elite are able to enjoy them, chocolate is still very much a sign of wealth and opulence.

Patric Chocolate's (a brand of "craft" chocolate) short ingredient list
Patric Chocolate’s (a brand of “craft” chocolate) short ingredient list

With a noticeable increase in quality, there comes a noticeable increase in price as well. In order to pay for the more expensive cocoa beans and the longer, more meticulous method of preparing them for making bars, “craft” chocolate can cost from five times to ten times more than the generic products offered at the local CVS (Williams, Eber 168-170). Moreover, if only the wealthy elite are able to afford these chocolate products, then it must have adequate packaging to advertise to that particular social class; thus, the wrapping for these chocolate bars are ornate and artistically designed – not the cheap plastic bags that are used to attract consumers in the convenience store. Without a doubt, the sophistication of the packaging was far from subtle. From the specific fonts used to spell out each chocolate’s name to the thick paper the words were embossed in, the chocolate products have as much going for them inside as well as outside. This emphasis on serving the rich is a direct extension of the social customs in Europe in the 17th century wherein chocolate was reserved particularly for either royalty or the social elite, albeit the class differences were more publicly enforced back then than the more subtle inequalities today (Coe, Coe 159-160). Nevertheless, the disparity still exists and the steep costs, elaborate packaging, and the upscale district Formaggio’s is located all do their part to reinforce the degree to which this type of chocolate has historically and presently been advertised to the upper class, further distancing these products from their lesser, more generic counterparts.

Patric Chocolate's ornate and relatively sophisticated packaging
Patric Chocolate’s ornate and relatively sophisticated packaging

The drastic market differences within the chocolate industry are manifested in the contrasting qualities, prices, and advertisements of the merchandise offered at that these two distinct locales. Whereas CVS’s modern, “buy-in-bulk” approach appeals to the average consumer in the US, Formaggio’s kitchen’s rustic, almost exotic goods exploit the curiosity – and money – of the rich. However, the sad reality that lies beyond the extensive hierarchy separating the two social classes is the fact that only the wealthy who shop at Formaggio’s kitchen truly experiences chocolate for what the food can offer: its unique taste, clean ingredients, and undiminished health benefits. Everyone else forced to settle with brand name chocolate stuffed with nougat and other fillers are merely duped by the industry itself. And although no change will ever come about from this injustice, due to the immense labor costs intrinsic to cocoa production, it is important for the average consumer to at least recognize what he or she actually walks out with after their everyday trip to the local CVS – or rather, what they’re not walking out with.

 

 

 

Works Cited

“Candy & Chocolate Bars Compared: Hershey’s, Nestle and Mars Nutrition Facts.” A Calorie Counter. A Calorie Counter, 20 Oct. 2013. Web. 6 May 2014. <http://www.acaloriecounter.com/candy-chocolate.php&gt;.

Coe, Sophie D., and Michael D. Coe. The True History of Chocolate. 3rd ed. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1996. Print.

“Formaggio Kitchen: Cheese 101.” A Little Bit about a Lot of Things. WordPress.com, 24 Dec. 2013. Web. 5 May 2014. <http://dgrubs.com/2013/12/24/formasggio-kitchen-cheese-101/&gt;.

Hess, Alexander E. M. “Most Popular Halloween Candy in the USA.” USA Today 27 Oct. 2013: n. pag. USA Today: A Gannett Company. Web. 7 May 2014. <http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2013/10/27/most-popular-halloween-candy-in-usa/3274967/&gt;.

Parkin, Johanna. “What Are You Eating: Snickers.” Men’s Health 2013: n. pag. Men’s Health. Web. 6 May 2014. <http://www.menshealth.co.uk/food-nutrition/healthy-eating/ what-are-you-eating-snickers-536760>.

Presilla, Maricel E. The New Taste of Chocolate: A Cultural and Natural History of Cacao with Recipes. 1st, Rev ed. New York: Ten Speed, 2009. Print.

Root, Lucas. “Weekend Food Commentary.” Urban Paleo Chef: Making Everyday Food Enjoyable and Satisfying. Urban Paleo Chef, 28 Jan. 2013. Web. 5 May 2014. <http://urbanpaleochef.com/ 2013/01/28/weekend-food-commentary-2/>.

“The Spin on Carbs: Think You Are Eating Healthy?” Total Performance Sports: Gym and Athletic Training Center. Total Performance Sports, 26 Nov. 2013. Web. 6 May 2014. <http://totalperformancesports.com/nutrition-corner-december-2013-think-you-are-eating-healthy/&gt;.

Williams, Pam, and Jim Eber. Raising the Bar: The Future of Fine Chocolate. Vancouver, BC: Wilmor, 2012. Print.

“YUM! Patric Chocolate.” Joy and Sunshine. Joy and Sunshine, 2 Oct. 2013. Web. 6 May 2014. <http://www.joyandsunshine.com/blog/2013/10/02/yum-patric-chocolate/&gt;.