Tag Archives: men

Marketers, sell your product, not social norms

The aim of an advert is to promote a product and entice people to buy it. Marketing companies use people’s desires and emotions to promote products. However, in attempt to attract the largest audience, they often appeal to the general population and use social norms and stereotypes to advertise. For example, the vast majority of chocolate advertisements are targeted at women because women are stereotyped to consume vastly more chocolate than men, even though research has proven otherwise. Mintel found that females only consume 4% more chocolate than males (CNN; Mintel 2010; Mintel 2014). This is a surprising statistic. Many people expect a larger difference since advertisements have fostered the stereotype that women eat more chocolate than men. With advertisements present on televisions, billboards, the internet, magazines, newspapers, taxis, supermarkets, public transport, and many more places, it is estimated that each person is exposed to 3,000 advertisements per day (Johnson; Story). Therefore, problematic social beliefs are affirmed daily, as we are exposed to thousands of advertisements that perpetuate stereotypical representations of social norms. Therefore, even if an advert is based on a small idea, with daily exposure it becomes a stereotype, and the young next generation are fed these stereotypes and social norms such that they no longer see them as ideas but as truth. Thus, marketers have a huge influence and power on creating or affirming society’s beliefs. Therefore, marketers must be conscious of the message they send out as they advertise their products.

 

The Original Dove Advertisement

In 2007 the marketers of Dove were not careful with their advertising power and released the advert below. This advertisement is built on many troublingly social beliefs and is discriminative.

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Firstly, Dove has completely sexualised men here. They centred and enlarged the abs to fill the entire advertisement, blurred out the sides and background, increased the shadow under each ab, and increased the light reflected off of each ab. This highlights and make us focus only on the muscle and its definition, as if that is the only thing that is important. The human body has many components: emotional, spiritual, mental, physical, and intellectual components. Even physically the human body has many parts and yet Dove chose to show only the male’s abdominal muscles. This promotes a superficial attitude towards men and degrades them to being an aesthetic pleasure, something of only physical worth.

Furthermore, Dove does not only degrade men to a physical body but even more so, their choice to use of a man of colour degrades black men to an object. Dove has used the racist social construct that as Caucasians are to vanilla, Hispanics are to caramel, and Asians are to butterscotch, blacks are to chocolate. Their use of a black model and dim enticing sexual lighting shows that Dove is fostering the idea that while whiteness symbolises ideas of cleanliness, purity, dullness, and blandness, blackness denotes themes of dirt, sin, extreme sexuality, and interest. Therefore, the lack of use of the model’s face and the use of the model’s skin colour to compare him as chocolate represents the disrespectful degradation of black men from a person to an object – a chocolate bar that is worth roughly one dollar.

From the small text at the bottom of the advertisement we see that the intended audience of this advert is a girl. The first issue is that Dove promotes heterosexual relationships and excludes homosexuals. Therefore Dove has tagged along and helped grow one of the biggest problems in chocolate advertising today – extremely frequently, only heterosexual relationships are used to sell chocolate. This Nestlé compilation video shows three examples of such exclusion towards those who are in the minority and are not heterosexually oriented.

 

Dove’s advert is not only sexist and discriminates against men, but their specific wording fosters common stereotypes that surround women too. The word “melts” plays on and encourages the idea that women are overly emotional and irrational over chocolate and muscles, so much so that their most vital organ will melt after one look at a six-pack and a taste of Dove’s chocolate. Additionally, the use of the word “girl’s” instead of “woman’s” is demeaning because it suggests that in this heterosexual relationship the male is superior and the female is inferior. All in all, Dove’s wording suggests that men are more dominant and in control, which promotes a patriarchal social construct and prevents us from moving towards a gender equal society.

 

The Recreated Advertisement

To show that it is possible to advertise chocolate without fostering disrespectful social norms, being racist, sexist, or excluding people, I have recreated Dove’s chocolate advert below.

final version

The primary goal of an advertisement is to promote the product that you are trying to sell. Unlike in Dove’s advertisement, chocolate is clearly the product here. It is at the centre. It is large. It is clear. In Dove’s advert “Dove chocolate” was finely printed at the bottom and the tiny chocolate bar and pieces were in the lower bottom right corner. Previously, only if you looked closely could you have been able to tell that it was an advertisement for chocolate.

Furthermore, the recreated advert has moved away from promoting social norms. Since a six-piece chocolate bar has replaced the previously racialised and sexualised six-pack, the advert no longer degrades a person to their physique, nor to an object. The recreated advert also includes numerous races and people of different ethnicities so that the advertisement is neither exclusive nor racist. The ideas of a patriarchal society, overly emotional and irrational woman, and the exclusion of non-heterosexuals have been removed. Instead, the audience has opened up to be all-inclusive as the recreated advertisement plays on the idea that chocolate is fundamentally social: The Maya word “chokola’j”, a potential source for our Spanish and English word for chocolate today, means “to drink chocolate together” (S. D. Coe and M. D. Coe 61).

 

Concluding thoughts

Marketing companies need to be more conscious about the methods they use to promote their products. There is no problem in promoting products to inform potential consumers what they might want to purchase; however, this should be done in a way that does not exclude, racialise, sexualise, discriminate, or degrade people or communities, or affirm or encourage the growth of disrespectful social norms. A safer way to ensure moral marketing is to keep the adverts focused on the product itself – what it can do, its purpose, and why it is worth purchasing. This will help prevent the fostering of disrespectful stereotypes and social norms and enable us to be a progressive society.

 

Works Cited

“Anywhere the Eye Can See, It’s Likely to See an Ad.” 2007. Louise Story, The New York Times. 15 Jan 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/15/business/media/15everywhere.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1 08 April 2016.

Coe, Sophie D. and Michael D. “The True History of Chocolate.” Thames & Hudson 2007 (1996). 61. Print

“Consumer Demand for Chocolate Stays Sweet.” Mintel. 08 October 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.mintel.com/press-centre/food-and-drink/consumer-demand-for-chocolate-stays-sweet 08 April 2016.

“Nation of Chocoholics: Eight Million Brits Eat Chocolate Every Day.” Mintel. 17 April 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.mintel.com/press-centre/food-and-drink/nation-of-chocoholics-eight-million-brits-eat-chocolate-every-day 08 April 2016.

“New Research Sheds Light on Daily Ad Exposures.” Sheree Johnson, SJ Insights. 29 September 2014. Retrieved from: https://sjinsights.net/2014/09/29/new-research-sheds-light-on-daily-ad-exposures/ 08 April 2016.

“Six Pack that Melts a Girl’s Heart.” 2007. Dove Chocolate, Mars Company. Digital File. 08 April 2016.

“Who consumes the most chocolate?” CNN. 17 Jan 2012. Retrieved from: http://thecnnfreedomproject.blogs.cnn.com/2012/01/17/who-consumes-the-most-chocolate/ 08 April 2016.

 

How Women Are Portrayed in Chocolate Advertising

 

 

Early Advertisements

Chocolate companies used women to sell their products from the beginning. Through the years women in advertising became more and more sexualized. Chocolate advertising does not stick to satisfy hunger appetites, but it “arouses appetites of a social nature by promising to satisfy viewers’ deep-seated desires for sexual fulfillment and higher class status” (Fahim, 2). In other words, the advertisements are trying to sell it by saying that by eating the chocolate, one should feel that they have been sexual fulfilled and be in a higher class status. The beginning advertisements of chocolate showed women, but not in a very sexualized manner. The two women shown above are average looking women dressed in day-to-day clothing. The advertisement is says “for her…”, but it is not objectifying the women sexually. As AdWomen sums it up, “Women love chocolate, chocolate loves advertising and advertising loves women. It is a chain like all chains of love”.  Consumers “love feelings and chocolate brings sensations”, it is because of this that chocolate companies focus on women to show those loving feelings and the sensations that accompany eating chocolate (AdWomen). Chocolate advertisements use women to show that eating their chocolate can fulfill sexual desires and show the high class value that comes along with their specific brands of chocolate.

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Advertising Today

In today’s advertising, women are very sexualized when it comes to chocolate especially. The women in this advertisement is dressed in very nice bedroom clothing and has a piece of chocolate placed just above her bust. She is most likely lying on a bed in a bedroom and is posing very seductively. On the advertisement is says, “You can see it in her eyes the joie de Godiva”. She is staring at the viewer by making direct eye contact. The customer can feel beautiful and sexy by eating Godiva chocolate. It plays on the emotions of fulfillment and feeling higher up by eating Godiva chocolate. This is just one image of a set of the “Go Diva” campaign that Godiva launched. All of the ads feature women in very sexualized manners showing their love for Godiva chocolate. Godiva “promotes a more sophisticated chocolate and use powerful imagery to convince consumers that they may attain an unparalleled experience of high-class luxury” (Fahin, 3). Godiva is trying to prove that it is the essence of luxury and power with these sexualized advertisements featuring women. This representation of women in chocolate advertising is the normal standard because chocolate companies must sell the sexualized women for their brands.

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My Advertising With Men

In the advertisement I made, it shows a man with chocolate all around his mouth and says, “You can see ti all on his face Godiva”. This man is eating his chocolate and making a mess out of it. He is wearing a plain t-shirt and a neutral background is behind him. This is not the typical ad you would see for chocolate. It is different in the largest extent because he is a male, but there is nothing sexualized about him in the ad. He is your average guy enjoying eating chocolate. This goes against what “sells” in advertising. The story behind this advertisement is that all guys can enjoy their chocolate as messy as they like it. They do not have to look like a model and scream high-class luxury. There are advertisements portraying men in chocolate, but they are usually shirtless and look like perfect models. This representation of a man enjoying chocolate is very far from the standard for chocolate companies. Though, many people could see this ad and want to enjoy chocolate as much as this guy is, companies do not see this as the ideal for selling their chocolate brands.

Sources

Fahim, Jamal. “Beyond Cravings: Gender and Class Desires in Chocolate Marketing.” Occidental College, 2010. Web.
MailOnline, Lucy Waterlow for. “Who Were the Aero Women? Chocolate Brand Searches for Mysterious Stars of Vintage Adverts.” Mail Online. Associated Newspapers, 11 Oct. 2013. Web.
“Marketing and Advertising Chocolate Group.” » Godiva Appeals to Women with “Diva” Campaign. N.p., 3 Mar. 2014. Web.
“Reloader.” How To Tell What a Man Will Be Like in Bed by the Way He Eats ~. N.p., n.d. Web.
“Women, Chocolate and Advertising | AdWomen.” AdWomen. N.p., n.d. Web.

 

Challenging the Standards of Men in Chocolate Advertisements

Why is it that chocolate advertisements, more often than not, focus on women enjoying chocolate and not men? In this blog post, I will challenge that idea. In this groundbreaking Galaxy Chocolate commercial, we see a woman who is clearly enjoying the amazing views around her, the attractive man in front of her, but really, she’s just loving that chocolate. At the end of this article, we’ll explore ideas about an alternate scenario, in which I have created a more inviting  and diverse take on the ad, demonstrating a man and a woman sharing chocolate without the divide of the back and front seats of the car.

 

 

This Galaxy chocolate ad from 2013, features a computerized rendering of Audrey Hepburn, who is on a bus that seems to have crashed into a farm stand’s cart. After seeing the Galaxy chocolate bar in her purse, she glances out the window and immediately locks eyes with a handsome man, who gestures to the front passenger seat of his car. The music and mood changes as Audrey scoots her way off the bus and walks to the man’s car, stealing the bus driver’s hat in the process. Instead of getting into the front seat like any normal human, she places the bus driver’s hat onto the man’s head and earns a glance of confusion. As Audrey magically appears in the back seat, the man drives off into a landscape of paradise. Audrey tears open the Galaxy chocolate bar wrapper, breaks off a piece, and as she enjoys the chocolate we see another wide pan view of the luxurious oceanside. She has the stereotypical female losing herself to chocolate reaction, without ever sharing a piece with her driver, who was never formally introduced to us.

This ad is definitely marketed towards women as it features one so heavily. Not only is this ad speaking to women and saying “wow, Audrey Hepburn is dead and she likes that chocolate, I’m alive I’ll like it too” It also comments that, “this chocolate will make a hunky man show up in a shiny car.” Now why didn’t she share her chocolate with any of the men surrounding her in this commercial? Well, obviously Audrey Hepburn is not a zombie and couldn’t go off script in this ad to add in her own personality…But with all of the men in this commercial, why can’t we see past the woman?

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Screenshot from 0:04 from Galaxy Chocolate Ad

According to Laura Tan (2), chocolate presented distinctly to women by women may be on its way out. Tan shows that men are currently eating more chocolate than women, and by popularity, sugar is now more evil than fat. This means that today’s modern woman yearns for permission to consume such villainous delicacies, that is, only if their food tracking apps say they have enough room for a candy bar will they spend a dollar or so at CVS. Conversely, there are also studies that show dark chocolate can be beneficial to heart health. While it has it’s health benefits, those women actively counting and scrimping every last detail of their diet, are likely to only feast on chocolate for a “treat yourself” dessert once in a while. So, if more and more women are jumping onto the fad of being overly healthy, why are they still the main stars of chocolate ads?

To challenge the motif of men as background characters; I inlisted the help of two colleagues.

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Instead of a beautiful, sunny landscape in paradise with an elegant celebrity sensually consuming chocolate, we see cold and grey urban day with two people in ordinary street clothing. A woman is in the driver’s seat with a man accompanying her in the passenger seat, completely opposite from what we previously saw in the Galaxy chocolate ad where the woman is in the backseat while the man drove. Instead of only seeing a woman enjoy her chocolate, we also see a man enjoying his. One of the stereotypes challenged by this mock ad is that chocolate is always a sexualized object. Shown clearly, both parties are genuinely enjoying their chocolate, not forcing an overly stimulated emotion on top of it. Unlike other stereotypical advertisement images, the woman in this photo is happily enjoying her chocolate, instead of sensually taking a bite while wearing red lipstick and silk surrounds her. Seeing a man enjoying his chocolate not only markets to men who will think “oh if he is enjoying his chocolate with that girl, I can too!” it continues to market to women as well.

In conclusion; if ads were more inclusive, products would in turn be more inclusive. For example, Aerie (the lingerie line by American Eagle), started its campaign “Aerie Real” or #aeriereal. With this, Aerie put an end to retouching and photoshopping of their models leaving in traits that make their models human: unlike other companies that will retouch every freckle and wrinkle until their models are plastic. Their demographic ranges from young women aged 15-21 (6) and these real unretouched women are an inspiration for them to be happy and proud of the body they have. If any of the major chocolate companies out there started advertising with real people; and no, not the “real” people used in car commercials, but actual real live people that go to work every day, cook dinner for their families, and occasionally want a chocolate bar, their ads would be diverse and inclusive to a broader range of individual customers.

Sources:

1-3- “Audrey Hepburn: Galaxy Chocolate Commercial” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gx9eDoS76LM

2- “How we resurrected Audrey Hepburn(TM) for the Galaxy Chocolate Ad”  http://www.theguardian.com/media-network/media-network-blog/2014/oct/08/how-we-made-audrey-hepburn-galaxy-ad

3- “The Secrets Behind Advertising Chocolate to Women and Why it’s about to Change Forever” http://www.stylist.co.uk/life/do-chocolate-firms-target-women-flake-cadburys-sweets-confectionery

4- “Why is Dark Chocolate Good for You? Thank Your Microbes” http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-is-dark-chocolate-good-for-you-thank-your-microbes/

5- Aerie Real https://www.ae.com/featured-aeriereal/aerie/s-cat/6890055

6- “Aerie’s Unretouched Ads ‘Challenge Supermodel Standards’ for Young Women” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/01/17/aerie-unretouched-ads-photos_n_4618139.html

 

 

Gallery Walk: Chocolate, Gender, and Industrialization

Art is closely tied to the culture of a society. Studying changes and patterns in symbolism and representations over time can provide clues to shifting norms and cultural expectations in society. By studying the path of chocolate through art history, we can better understand the shifting associations between chocolate and gender.

Chocolate has been intimately tied to gender since its origins in ancient Mesoamerica. As chocolate spread to new cultures and new continents, practices surrounding the production, serving, and consumption of chocolate changed to reflect the sometimes strict, sometimes contradictory gender norms of these new cultures.

Ancient Mesoamerica: women and production

PrincetonVase   Woman prepares chocolate - Codex Tudela

The women above – on the left, from a Mayan vase ca. 750 CE, and on the right, from the Aztec Codex Tudela ca. 1500 CE – are each pouring chocolate from one vessel to another, a key step in the preparation of ancient Mesoamerican chocolate beverages. The images below illustrate the somewhat different relationship of deities to chocolate.

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On the left, from the Dresden Codex, the rain god holds a bowl of cacao in his hands, presumably for consumption; on the right, a high-ranking Mayan man seated on a platform is inspecting a pot containing a frothed cacao beverage – again, he appears to be preparing to drink the chocolate. Though we have access today to only a fraction of the images of chocolate created in the first several hundred years of its consumption, the images that we do have draw a compelling distinction between the relationship of men and women to chocolate.  Women produced chocolate, and men consumed it. Aztec and Maya texts, as well as the writings of the European colonists who settled in Mesoamerica, indicate that these earliest consumers of chocolate were well aware of its stimulating effect (Coe and Coe). In Aztec society, the consumption of chocolate was expressly limited to nobles, merchants, and warriors – all, for the most part, male (Coe and Coe). The roles of women in Mesoamerican society were far more restricted – women were primarily involved in the domestic sphere – and far less physically active, meaning they lost the privilege of drinking chocolate.

Chocolate houses, European men, and chaos

By the early 17th century, cacao had officially arrived in Europe. It was first drunk only by royalty, but quickly spread – especially in England – to the masses, aided by the class-defying appeal of London’s coffeehouses (Calhoun). William Hogarth’s engraving, below, shows a raucous crowd of men at White’s Chocolate House, many gambling, smoking, or stabbing at the air with swords.

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A somewhat tamer scene is depicted below; again, though, men have come together in great numbers to consume chocolate.

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Coffee houses and chocolate houses were generally a space from which women were excluded. There is historical disagreement about whether women were forbidden from frequenting these spaces by decree, as Bramah claims, or merely made unwelcome, as Cowan argues; whatever the means of exclusion, the visual record confirms that chocolate houses were a gendered space. Women were only present in chocolate houses as owners or employees. (Calhoun). A deeper cultural gender divide is clear when we consider the conversations that generally took place in coffeehouses and chocolate houses: historians often acknowledge the role of these spaces in disseminating the intellectual ideals of the Age of Enlightenment to the public sphere (Calhoun). The absence of women from this important sphere where culture and politics were discussed, debated, and shaped reveals the lack of autonomy given to women to change their position in society.

Wealthy women, working women

European women may have been excluded from A Lady Pouring Chocolate by Jean-Étienne Liotard (1744)chocolate houses, but they certainly were not excluded from consuming chocolate.

For the first time in our visual journey, female consumption is central. Men certainly continued to consume chocolate, but women appear far more frequently in paintings of domestic consumption. The paintings to the right and below are from the mid-18th century. All the women pictured are upper-class: their clothing and surroundings clearly demonstrate wealth, and the paintings appear to be posed – typical of portraiture in the period, but also an indicator of wealth, as only the elite could afford to commission portraits.

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rev586551-oriWealthy men tend only to appear as consumers of chocolate when a woman is at the center of the painting, as in the Penthièvre family portrait above and Longhi’s painting to the left, where men literally surround a woman reclining in a tulle dress.

Women were painted with chocolate to demonstrate their wealth. Chocolate was a less powerful symbol of wealth for men: men had always been allowed to consume chocolate, and so a painting of a man drinking it was unsurprising.

While wealthy women began to be depicted as consumers, servants and lower-class women were still confined to the production and serving of chocolate. The painting below inspired advertising campaigns for both Droste and Baker’s chocolate.

jean-etienne_liotard_-_the_chocolate_girl_-_google_art_project  Droste  800px-BakersCocoa.JPG

For many middle-class women, the packaging on cocoa powder was the closest interaction they would have with chocolate and art.

Non-elite women did consume chocolate, and were often depicted consuming it, especially by the Impressionists. Renoir painted three portraits, each titled “The Cup of Chocolate,” in rapid succession around the turn of the 20th century.

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Globalization and new gender roles

Though women of lower social status were now able to consume chocolate, they were also responsible for preparing it and serving it. The massive shifts in production that came with global industrialization meant that society became strictly stratified, and gender roles were not necessarily consistent across the strata.

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In fact, images of men preparing and serving chocolate – traditionally a responsibility reserved 37-3761-9cvzf00zfor women – begin to appear around this time, especially in advertisements (such as the Fry’s chocolate advertisement above, where a man working at a drugstore is selling chocolate) and shop signs (the chocolatier sign depicts a man stirring a pot of chocolate).

Domestic food preparation was an almost entirely female arena in ancient Mesoamerica; surviving Mayan and Aztec art depicts women preparing chocolate and men preparing to consume it. Industrialization led to the increased stratification of European society, and brought new gender roles for the elite and for the working class. Wealthy women were no longer responsible for preparing food: they had servants to cook for them. The woman’s role in domestic management was displaced by the growing gap between the wealthy and the poor. Meanwhile, the globalization of food and food production meant that more men became responsible for food production somewhere along the supply line: harvesting cacao, grinding and conching and pressing chocolate, and handling the financial side of large chocolate businesses were all primarily male occupations.

Food production, for a large part of human history, took place almost exclusively within the home. Industrialization shifted production outside of the home, and created stratified gender roles. Art provides clues to the changing structure of human societies by giving us a glimpse of the prototypical figures of men and women over time. Continued consideration of how accurate a picture those glimpses paint is crucial – not all members of society are portrayed in art, and not all the images we see are accurate portrayals.

Images

Peck, D. G. (1973) Drawing of a detail from the Princeton Vase. Published in Michael Coe’s The Maya Scribe and His World (1973). Image source: http://www.metmuseum.org/blogs/now-at-the-met/2014/maya-drinking-cup.

The Princeton Vase: Artist unknown, of Late Classic Maya origins (A.D. 670-750). Princeton Vase. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Art Museum.

Image of Aztec woman pouring chocolate. Artist unknown (16th century). Codex Tudela. Madrid: Museo de América. Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mujer_vertiendo_chocolate_-_Codex_Tudela.jpg

Image of Rain God and Opossum God: Artist unknown (ca. 12th century). Dresden Codex Maya Hieroglyphic Text of Almanac: 25-28. Image courtesy of The Maya Codices Database, Version 4.1. Source: http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/maya/chocolate/cacao-money.

Image of Mayan inspecting chocolate beverage. Artist unknown (15th century). Image source: http://www.lindt.com/noswf/ger/world-of-lindt/lindt-history/swiss-chocolate-pioneers-in-the-19th-century.

William Hogarth (1697-1764). The Rake’s Progress, Plate VI “Gaming House Scene,” engraved by W. Radclyffe. Source: Complete Works, facing p. 98. Scanned image and text by Philip V. Allingham. Image source: http://www.victorianweb.org/painting/18c/hogarth/rp6.html

Image of 17th-century London Chocolate House. Artist unknown (date unknown). Image source: http://now-here-this.timeout.com/2013/12/10/london-chocolate-festival-take-a-choco-tour-of-london.

Liotard, J. E. (1744). A Lady Pouring Chocolate. London: National Gallery. Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Liotard-Lady_Pouring_Chocolate.jpg.

Charpentier, J. B. (1768). La famille du duc de Penthièvre (“La Tasse de Chocolat”). Versailles: Musée National du Château. Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:La_famille_du_Duc_de_Penthi%C3%A8vre_dit_la_tasse_de_chocolat.jpg.

Longhi, P. (1774-1780). La cioccolata di mattino. Venice: Ca ‘Rezzonico. Image source: http://www.exibart.com/profilo/eventiV2.asp?idelemento=58655

Liotard, J. E. (1743-44). La Belle Chocolatière. Dresden: Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister. Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Chocolate_Girl#/media/File:Jean-Etienne_Liotard_-_The_Chocolate_Girl_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

Musset, J. (ca. 1900). Droste cocoa packaging. Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Droste.

Baker’s Cocoa (1919). Baker’s Cocoa Advertisement in Overland Monthly, January 1919. Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Baker_%26_Company.

Renoir, P. A. (1878). The cup of chocolate. Private collection. Image source: http://www.wikiart.org/en/pierre-auguste-renoir/the-cup-of-chocolate-1878.

Renoir, P. A. (1912). Cup of chocolate (Femme prenant du chocolat). Philadelphia: Barnes Foundation. Image source: http://www.barnesfoundation.org/collections/art-collection/object/7007/cup-of-chocolate-femme-prenant-du-chocolat.

Renoir, P. A. (1914). Cup of chocolate (La tasse de chocolat). Philadelphia: Barnes Foundation. Image source: http://www.barnesfoundation.org/collections/art-collection/object/5068/cup-of-chocolate-la-tasse-de-chocolat.

J.S. Fry & Sons, Ltd. (ca. 1900). Advertisement for Fry’s Chocolates. Image source: http://digital.lib.muohio.edu/cdm/ref/collection/tradecards/id/1559

Borrari, O. (Date unknown). Sign of Milanese Shop. Gallery unknown. Image source: http://www.paintingsoncanvas.net/print-98538-6009700/sign-milanese-shop-other.

Caraud, J. (1872). Sharing the Chocolate [Painting]. Gallery unknown. Image source: https://www.papillonclub.org/History/PhotoGallery-OldMasters-C-Sharing-the-Chocolate.html

Works Cited

Bramah, E. (1972). Tea and Coffee: A Modern View of Three Hundred Years of Tradition. Tiptree, Essex: Hutchinson & Co, Ltd.

Calhoun, B. (2012). “Shaping the Public Sphere: English Coffeehouses and French Salons and the Age of the Enlightenment,” Colgate Academic Review 3: 7. Accessed: http://commons.colgate.edu/car/vol3/iss1/7

Coe, S. D., & Coe, M. D. (1996). The true history of chocolate. New York: Thames and Hudson.

Colmenero, A. (1652). Chocolate: or, An Indian Drinke. First printing, London: J.G. for John Dakins. Wadsworth, J. (translator). Accessed: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/21271/21271-h/21271-h.htm

Cowan, B. W. (2001). “What Was Masculine about the Public Sphere? Gender and the Coffeehouse Milieu in Post-Restoration England.” History Workshop Journal 51: 127–157.