Tag Archives: Mesoamerican

Why Did the Spaniards Choose Cane Sugar over Honey? Was This the Healthiest Choice?

Before the colonial encounter, Mesoamericans commonly consumed cacao as a chocolate beverage in ritualistic, medicinal, and social contexts. Ingredients, such as flowers, spices, and honey, were added to diversify the flavor of the beverage. Specifically, honey is the oldest sweetener known to man in the world, although its exact date of origin is unknown. However, humans did begin to use honey at least 10,000 years ago, as was demonstrated by a cave painting found in the early 1900s in Valencia, Spain.

Honey seeker depicted on 8000 year old cave painting at Arana Caves in Spain

This painting is at least 8,000 years old and shows a honey seeker, and in ancient times people in the Middle East, Roman Empire, and China collected honey to use as a sweetener, currency, and medicine (Nayik et al., 2014). When the Spaniards first encountered the Mesoamerican chocolate drink in the 1500s, it was too bitter for their palates and thus they relied on the principal spices or honey to consume the beverage comfortably (Coe & Coe, 2013). Although the intake of honey as food and medicine provided many nutritional and therapeutic benefits, soon after the Spaniards encountered chocolate, the Mesoamerican chocolate recipe was transformed in that cane sugar replaced honey as the sweetener. The sugar cane plant was a novelty to the Maya and the Aztecs when the Spaniards introduced and began to cultivate it in Mesoamerica after the Conquest (Coe & Coe, 2013). Honey as a sweetener could not satisfy the European sweet tooth, which was accustomed to the cane sugar that was introduced during medieval times in the western part of the Old World (Coe & Coe, 2013). In addition to the enhanced sweetness cane sugar offered, the chocolate recipe transformation occurred due to the increase in the perceived medicinal and nutritional properties and the source reliability that cane sugar also offered. In the modern context, however, this transformation may have not been for the best.

Despite honey’s ancient history, cane sugar quickly gained nutritional and medicinal popularity first among the wealthy and then most households in Europe. Cane sugar was first introduced to Europeans around 1100 AD, but it was classified as a spice rather than as a sweetener (Mintz, 1986). Around this time, cane sugar began to replace honey for medicinal purposes. Medical figures declared that cane sugar was more “soothing and solving” than honey (Mintz, 1986). Due to its perceived heightened medicinal properties, cane sugar was reserved for the wealthy while honey was delegated to poorer patients (Mintz, 1986). However, as cane sugar became more commonplace, honey became more expensive (Mintz, 1986). All around, cane sugar replaced honey, and this transformation was not limited to medicine. By the middle of the thirteenth century, cane sugar began to replace honey as a sweetener in wealthy households. Cane sugar came to replace honey in the diets of Europeans because of the perceived nutritional benefits it provided. It became a source of calories for the often undernourished working class. With the rise of coffee and tea, both of which lacked calories, cane sugar provided much-needed calories (Mintz, 1986). Also, cane sugar provided a cheaper alternative to other calorie-rich, but expensive, food items. Lastly, cane sugar was a better preservative than honey, as it contained the more effective sucrose (Mintz, 1986). Therefore, Europeans could save perishable foods, such as meats and fruits, for longer periods of time, which was also cost-effective. The perceived medicinal, nutritional, and financial benefits of sugar over honey led to the shift of honey as a sweetener to cane sugar as a sweetener, which played a part in the Spaniards altering the Mesoamerican chocolate recipe.

Another factor that influenced the shift from honey to cane sugar in Spaniards’ chocolate recipes was the source from which cane sugar is extracted compared to that of honey. Comparable to cane sugar’s source, honey’s source is variable and more biologically expensive.

Video representation of the honey production process

The video above describes the process of producing honey from the nectar of flowers via bees. Considering that a single bee must drink from thousands of flowers to fill its honey stomach, then serially transfer said nectar into the mouth of other bees before fanning their wings to create an air current that evaporates and thickens the nectar, the honey-making process is labor intensive on the part of the bees. Furthermore, for just one pound of honey, more than 10,000 bees will together fly three times around the world and drink from 8 million flowers. In contrast, the source of cane sugar is much more reliable and the biological cost is lower, as it is not an organism that must travel back and forth and rely on the movement of other organisms.

Video representation of the cane sugar manufacturing process

The video above demonstrates the cane sugar manufacturing process, starting from the sugar cane plant. This plant is a tropical grass that can grow up to 20 feet high. When sugar cane is ready for harvest, the tops of the grass are cut, and the base stocks are left behind so they can grow into the next crop. Due to this harvesting style, sugar cane is a renewable resource as it does not have to be replanted to produce a new crop. This is one benefit that cane sugar provides over honey, as bees must reproduce to continue the lines of queen bees and forager bees. After harvest, the sugar cane is transported to a mill and washed and cut into shreds. The shreds are crushed by rollers before they are placed in separators that remove the fibers and send the juice to evaporators. The resultant syrup is boiled to remove water, and then cooled before crystallization. More steps follow, but despite the complex extraction of cane sugar from the sugar cane plant, this source is more reliable than bees who are subject to climate change, infertility, and diseases. This reliability was summed up by Alexander the Great’s Admiral Nearchos around 300 BC, who referred to the sugar cane plant as “‘Indian reeds that make honey without bees’” (Nordic Sugar A/S, 2019) . Even during ancient times and without modern sugar production technology, the juice from the sugar cane plant was pressed out and boiled to produce crystallized sugar (Nordic Sugar A/S, 2019) . Since cane sugar production primarily relies on a renewable resource and man-made technology, it is more constant and not as biologically expensive as honey production, which makes cane sugar more readily available as a sweetener.

Although cane sugar was perceived as providing more medicinal benefits and nutritional benefits to the diets of Europeans than honey, research today discounts this belief. According to a study published in the Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education, since honey is denser than cane sugar, one tablespoon of honey carries more than one tablespoon of cane sugar (Anonymous, 2011). Also, honey offers some nutrients that cane sugars does not, such as antioxidants (Anonymous, 2011). Therefore, this research overrides the notion that cane sugar is medically and nutritionally superior to honey. In hindsight, replacing honey as a sweetener with cane sugar does not appear to have been the healthiest choice, as honey does provide more calories and nutrients. However, cane sugar was and still is a better preservative and its taste more enjoyable, comparable to honey.

Overall, the honey to cane sugar transformation in chocolate recipes ultimately served to sweeten the beverage at the expense of healthier consumption. Although sugar cane is a more reliable source for sweetener than flowers and bees, nowadays humans are relying on an insubstantial added sweetener. Even though honey is also an added sweetener, it is nutritiously and medically superior to cane sugar. However, cane sugar was integral to the rise in popularity of chocolate, as its sweetness and taste could not be matched by honey in the palates of Europeans.

Multimedia Sources

Hanson, Joe [It’s Okay To Be Smart]. (2016, March 28). How Do Bees Make Honey [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nZlEjDLJCmg

[Imperial Sugar]. (2015, June 9). How Cane Sugar Is Made [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/EP_fgp7zYKk

Nayik, G., Shah, T., Muzaffar, K., Wani, S., Gull, A., Majid, I., & Bhat, F. (2014). Honey: Its history and religious significance: A review. Universal Journal of Pharmacy, 03(1), 5-8.


Anonymous. (2011). Honey or Sugar? Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education, 40(1), 224.

Coe, S. D. and Coe, M. D. 2013[1996]. The True History of Chocolate. 3rd edition. London: Thames & Hudson.

Mintz, S. 1986[1985]. Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York: Penguin Books.

Nordic Sugar A/S. (2019). A Sweet Story. Retrieved March 8, 2019, from https://www.nordicsugar.com/know-your-sugar/natural-sweetness/a-sweet-story/

So, is chocolate REALLY good for you or is it all a hoax?


People love chocolate. Three words that may not *technically* be a proven scientific fact, but are, at least in my own opinion, pretty valid for those living in today’s society. It is a line that I know I hear, and even find myself saying, quite often: someone is sad or feeling down and the response comes to “get them some chocolate and they will definitely feel so much better!” What I think people often forget is that chocolate truly does have a number of health benefits, dating back to its start and discovery and leading its way into the current society that we live in. Of the many health benefits that the consumption of chocolate has been linked to in both the past and present, I would like to briefly examine its use as a positive health benefit in the past and then relate that to my main focus on our current society, where chocolate has certainly taken the name to have medical benefits that continue to grow and become more supported through scientific evidence and research.

While discussing the past and present findings and beliefs on the medical benefits of chocolate, I also hope to draw conclusions of my own on the matter based on the evidence and research that is currently available. I think this topic is certainly one where all the facts and pieces of evidence need to be considered before a conclusion can be drawn.


Chocolate consumption has been associated with medicinal benefits for several years. In an article written by Donatella Lippi, she talks about how the evidence of cacao that was used for medicinal purposes dates far back to Mesoamerican civilizations (Lippi).  Looking back to the past, there were notions presented on how chocolate refreshes and satisfies the body (Coe and Coe, p. 110). The Coes also talk about how texts dating back to the 1500’s showed how the Emperor had a process of keeping botanical plants to experiment with, having the hopes of finding some sort of medical connection among them. Eventually, cacao appeared as one of the successful ones, showing that it could cure infections, control cough, and lower fevers among other things (Coe and Coe). The Mesoamericans spoke of chocolate as if it were a “food of the Gods” (Martin, Lecture).  For this reason, chocolate was often times included in traditional Mesoamerican rituals. Mayan documents, often written in Dresden Codex, showed cacao being depicted by Gods during ritual activities, including marriage and death rituals (Coe and Coe, 41). Additionally, Donatella Lippi went on to talk about


chocolate as a Mesoamerican medicine and stated that it dates back to Montezuma and his high levels of chocolate beverage consumption in the hopes that he would remain as masculine as possible (Lippi, 2017). In general, Mesoamericans certainly recognized how cacao was a medical benefit, often believing that those who consumed chocolate would be able to live longer than those who were deprived of consuming the treat (Coe and Coe).


Cacao as a “bean of the Gods”

Through the readings and lectures we have gone over in class, we have also seen how the Spaniards and Europeans believed in chocolate and its overall positive effects on mood. In The True History of Chocolate, authors Sophie and Michael Coe state that the Spaniards thought that chocolate was a “a drug, a medicine” (Coe and Coe, p. 126). This idea focused on the fact that once the Europeans brought chocolate overseas, they linked it to humoral medicine as a drug and medicine (Coe and Coe).

The link between chocolate and its effects on health started in fairly general terms; however, eventually this evolved into a long stretch of scientific studies and research that really tried to examine the specifics between chocolate and its physical and mental health benefits. In the article “Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food”, Donatella Lippi opens up by talking about how “throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use” (Lippi, 2013). She then goes on to talk about how simply the belief of chocolate being linked to health was not enough; breaking it down to the properties of chocolate that allowed it to have positive health effects was key in understanding (Lippi, 2013). For example, dark chocolate is known to be rich in iron, copper, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus, and flavanols (Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health). The flavanols are most important when it comes to the health benefits.


To open up and introduce this section, I would like to start off by proposing a question. I hope to draw some sort of conclusion on this question by the end of this blog post. Because the debate about chocolate’s actual health benefits continue to go back and forth and are still not completely determined, I think it is rather important to consider the following matters:

Is the idea that chocolate bars have positive health benefits for a person’s health really supported by actual research or is this just a bunch of hear-say with no scientific evidence to back it up? Is this claim something that people just have an idea about or is there actual proof to support its validity? What kinds of chocolate are best to consume in order to obtain these positive health benefits?

In today’s society, one thing that is essential to remember is that the link of chocolate to medical and health benefits primarily focuses on the dark chocolate variety, which contains at least sixty percent pure cacao and high levels of flavanol content, though it is noted that consumption for the purpose of health benefits should be focused on chocolate that has at least seventy percent pure cacao. Often times, this high level of flavanol content does cause the chocolate to be more bitter in taste (Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health). In an article written by Dr. Robert Shmerling, Faculty Editor at Harvard Health Publishing, he brings up this key point and notes that not all chocolate is the same. Dark chocolate is high in flavanol content while milk chocolate and white chocolate have much lower levels of flavanol (Shmerling, 2017). Additionally, it is important to note that “even a chocolate bar that is 70% cacao can have varying levels of flavonoid compounds, depending on how it was processed” (Storrs, 2017). Furthermore, author Carina Storrs comments that any kind of chocolate that goes through a chemical process known as “dutching” would basically lose all traces of flavonoid compounds; this frequently happens in Dutch chocolate (Storrs, 2017).

As seen in both of the figures above, “raw” chocolate decreases blood pressure and assists in the improvement of blood circulation in a person’s body. The graphic to the right lists out health benefits of dark chocolate, some of them including slowing signs of aging, reducing the risk of diabetes, and reducing stress levels. Additionally, Sophie and Michael Coe state that “dark chocolate does not cause diabetes, cavities, or acne”, which is something that people often times believe and is part of what allows people to link dark chocolate to having health benefits in general (Coe and Coe, 31). Furthermore, Sophie and Michael Coe say that there has been no direct correlation between developing heart disease and consuming chocolate (Coe and Coe, 30).

When considering the link between chocolate consumption and, specifically, brain health Dr. Robert Shmerling talks about how both short-term and long-term consumption of chocolate can be beneficial. In various completed research studies, it showed that adults who consumed dark chocolate with high flavanol content had better performances on tests of memory and reaction time (Shmerling). Studies have also found that chocolate can be a key provider of antioxidants that are beneficial for the body. Another article posted on the pros and cons of chocolate also states that “a team of researchers at Harvard Medical School found that older adults who drank two cups of liquid chocolate a day for 30 days had improved blood flow to the parts of their brain needed for memory and thinking” (Harvard Women’s Health Watch, 2014). It seems that chocolate’s link to brain health mainly focuses on the ability of flavonoids to improve mental function and speaking ability. It is important to note, however, that there has not been any proven scientific research that shows that chocolate consumption can prevent dementia or other diseases that bring about a “mental decline”. Dr. Owais Khawaja, a cardiology fellow at St. Vincent Mercy Medical Center in Ohio, says that “chocolate is a good antioxidant. It has a good effect on inflammation” (Storrs, 2017). Dr. Khawaja also states that some additional benefits as a result of chocolate’s anti-inflammatory properties include that it might help to reduce the risk of cancer and dementia.

In the video attached here, we can see a listing of the top ten benefits of dark chocolate on a person’s health and well-being. The video touches on the positive effects of dark chocolate on cardiovascular health, weight loss, and lowering levels of blood pressure, to name a few. In general from sources that are widely available, it does seem that dark chocolate has links to perhaps living a healthier lifestyle. Self-medication and stress relief are two additional items that dark chocolate has a link to when it comes to levels of improvement. Score!


As seen in the figure to the right, dark chocolate is the form of chocolate that is known to have health benefits. As noted in the figure (and stated previously), the pattern appears to be that a cacao content of over at least sixty percent in a given chocolate item is most beneficial for a person’s health. Additionally, I believe it is accurate to conclude that heart health seems to be the most commonly affected aspect of a person’s health benefits from chocolate consumption.

In an article published in Harvard Women’s Health Watch, it was stated that ingredients in chocolate can be healthy, but “the high-calorie chocolate bars that contain it aren’t necessarily good for you” (Harvard Women’s Health Watch, 2014). The three flavonoid compounds in chocolate that are known to help improve cardiovascular functions in the body are catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin (Harvard Women’s Health Watch, 2014). These flavonoid compounds assist with lowering cholesterol rates, reducing inflammation that may be present in the body, and preventing blood clots from occurring at all. Dr. Eric Ding, a scientist in the Department of Nutrition at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health has completed 24 studies on the effects of flavonoids in chocolate on cardiovascular risks. In his findings, it was reported that flavonoids in chocolate reduced blood pressure rates and levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol. Additionally, rates of healthy HDL cholesterol increased, while improved levels of blood flow and and lower levels of insulin resistance were also displayed (Harvard Women’s Health Watch, 2014).


After researching and seeing the scientific evidence that is available regarding chocolate and its effects on health, it is definitely shown that consuming the right kind of chocolate with the proper characteristics can have positive health benefits for a consumer. As with anything, intake moderation is definitely significant and rates of consumption should be exercised with caution. Monitoring levels of sugar intake (i.e. selecting chocolate bars with lower levels of sugar added) is certainly important in order to limit any adverse health effects from taking place on the body. Additionally, people should proceed with caution when depending on chocolate (of the dark variety, of course!) to lower health risks. The public should recognize that researchers have been able to confirm that chocolate does have short-term benefits on heart health and other health issues but, for example, as stated by Dr. Eric Ding, “the jury is still out in terms of actual direct heart attack prevention” (Harvard Women’s Health Watch, 2014).


So, what do I think as a result of all of this? I do believe that chocolate can have positive health effects on the body. It is important to limit intake (eating ten chocolate bars a day is still not a good idea, sorry!) and mainly consuming dark chocolate is best due to the fact that it contains the highest percentages of pure cacao. Additionally, choosing chocolate bars that are also low in sugar and fats is very important, as these two things can actually cause adverse health effects as I am sure we all know.



100% support for this claim! 

Some scientists have recommended that the best way to get the health advantages of the flavonoids in chocolate without consuming all the negative elements as well is to purchase chocolate products that are more concentrated, such as cocoa supplements.


Dark chocolate and its positive effects on health

If consumed properly, and in moderate levels, chocolate, specifically dark chocolate, does have positive health effects on a person’s health including the improvement of cardiovascular health, decreased levels of stress, and more. I know I will definitely continue eating chocolate – it is just time that I make the switch over to dark chocolate more often.






“Chocolate: Pros and Cons of This Sweet Treat – Harvard Health.” Harvard Health Blog,

Harvard Women’s Health Watch, Feb. 2014. Web.

Coe, Sophie D., and Michael D. Coe. The True History of Chocolate. Thames

and Hudson, 2013. Print.

“Dark Chocolate.” The Nutrition Source, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

Lippi, Donatella. “Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food.” Nutrients, 5 May

2013, pp. 1573-1584., doi: 10.3390/nu5051573. Web.

Martin, Carla. “Chocolate, Culture, and the Politics of Food”. Lecture 7: Modern Day

Slavery. 2018.

Martin, Carla. “Mesoamerica and the ‘Food of the Gods”. Harvard University, AAAS

E-119. Cambridge, MA. Lecture.

Schmerling, Robert H. “Your Brain on Chocolate.” Harvard Health Publishing. 16 Aug.

2017, http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/your-brain-on-chocolate-2017081612179. Web.

Storrs, Carina. “Is Chocolate Good or Bad for Health?” CNN, Cable News Network, 25 May

2017, http://www.cnn.com/2016/02/10/health/chocolate-health-benefits/index.html. Web.


Drawing on Chocolate: How Society Displays its Values on its Favorite Food

From the earliest of its history, chocolate has been tied to the value systems of the people that consumed it. As cacao products and recipes traveled around the world, the decorations and designs that people have chosen to use on containers give us insight into the value systems of their cultures.

Mezo-American Values

Relics of Meso-American pottery date to the same place and timeframe as the archeological record of chocolate–with the Olmec people. (Rose) Chemical analysis of pottery shards shows that the Olmec culture made cacao pulp into an intoxicating beer-type drink at least 1000 years before the current era. Eventually the cacao bean byproduct fermented into its own food source and began to resemble chocolate–at least in its crudest liquid form. (Henderson)

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The Mayan drinking vase on display in the permanent collection of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts is an example of documentation of ceremony, politics, and the importance of chocolate in their society. Slightly larger than a modern quart jar, the drinking vase has a wrap-around visual narrative that details a ritual, specifically noting out that kakaw (cacao) was one of the stimulating substances used in this event.

Our first pictorial record of the original bitter drink begins with the wealthiest of the Mayan society. These colorful jewels of Western Hemisphere art document the details about ritual life by describing events, attendees, and even the ingredients of the beverage. Documenting their religion and political record onto the containers from which they drank chocolate shows the importance of the beverage in their society.

The Aztec created rounded bowls from the calabash gourds which the local populace used to prepare their daily cacao. The society elite commissioned ceremonial pottery that took the same shape and name as the gourd vessels–jícara. Vessels like this were documented in the first Spanish histories, with descriptions of cacao preparation being poured from bowl to bowl to create a frothy top. (Presilla 32)

By the time the Spanish arrived, Aztec decorations were becoming less literal than the Mayans’ had been, and were more symbolic of the gods’ earthy powers. Geometric representation of forces such as lightening and serpents were replacing the drawings of the gods themselves. As colonization progressed, the strong geometric symbolism was married with the Spanich-Islamic influences and techniques–showing up in the hybridization of cuisines, ingredients (Lauden) as well as in the art motifs.

The ultimate reason for the Spanish colonization the Americas was to extract the wealth from the natural resources of the new world. Although the Spanish government justified their version of slavery with the religious conversion of the Native Americans, in the end the colonization effort needed to be a wealth-producing enterprise. Along with agricultural products such as chocolate and sugar, metals were of great value in the European market. Native cultures shared the affinity for gold, silver and copper and used them as ornament and decorative items for the elite, but they had not perfected many techniques to create items for utilitarian purposes. The Spanish brought the knowledge of metallurgy which led to the local creation of copper chocolate pots for drink preparation. They also used silver to create handles and feet on the local cups made from coconut, literally wrapping the drink in wealth.

This video of a Filipino chocolate preparation shows the use of a copper chocolate pot and a molinillo stick to stir the chocolate into a froth. This is how the Spanish modified the native Nahuatl method of pouring the chocolate from bowl to bowl to produce a froth. (Coe 156), (Presilla 20)

After the Spanish arrival, pottery designs started showing stronger geometric divisions and flowery natural imagery moving away from the stylization of the Aztec and becoming more reminiscent of the designs that were slathered on mother Spain’s 12th century Moorish architecture. Images of upper-class colonial life, replaced the Native American depictions of myths and ceremonies. Plantation life was becoming more important than the natural forces and religions of Mexico. The sgrafitto, or incised pottery techniques that the Spaniards brought with them, married well with the engraved and carved techniques that had been in Meso-America since the Olmecs, but allowed for a more refined hand to carve into gourds and coconuts as well as pottery. (Presilla 32)

Jícara such as this one from Peru uses the sgrafitto technique to create a delicate designs that bring to mind the Spanish homeland.

The gourd-bowl shape has become synonymous with colorful, modern Mexican tourist-style pottery in the shape of flowerpots and salad bowls. Calabash gourds are still grown, dried, carved and sold today in the markets of Tabasco. Grown from a native American tree that is remarkably similar to cacao in habit and form–modern uses for the gourds can be anything from drinking, to measuring, to display.

The influence and pottery technology of the Olmecs had moved northward with trade routes to the Pueblo people. Gas chromatography analysis of North American artifacts has shown that long before the Aztecs had usurped the regional market on cacao, the trade routes of the Mayans had extended northward to canyons of New Mexico. (Mozdy) The Anasazi cultures created tall, vessels reminiscent of the Mayan vase shape, decorated with extremely stylized iconography that represented the common Meso-American pantheon.

These examples from Chaco Canyon are covered with lightening bolts that reflect the Pueblo’s interpretation of the imported Mezoamerican rain god, Quetzocoatle and display the reverence to the forces of nature that the local culture held. (Eaton 38)

This 1200-mile path between where the vessels were found (in the Pueblo Bonito of Chaco Canyon) and the nearest source of cacao would have required 600 hours of backpacking through rough country and sweltering heat. As one researcher phrased it “That’s a long way to go for something that you don’t need for survival”, [something] that’s more of a delicacy…” Whether the Anasazi acquired this cacao through dedicated treks south–which would have taken weeks–or their pueblo was the endpoint of an even slower hand-to-hand, village-to-village trade route. (Mozdy)

European Values

Soon after chocolate washed across the courts of Europe, trade with the east opened up, bringing with it tea, and a new the technology harder, refined pottery that we still refer to as “china”. Tea was not treated just as basic sustenance. Like the original chocolate beverage, there was ceremony attached to it that appealed to the idle wealthy who could afford these imported beverages. Tea was prepared in a fancy ceramic pot–separate from the kettle used to heat the water. Then it was decanted to a cup to delicately sip. The wealthy started applying the same approach their chocolate. Long gone was the habit of preparing and drinking chocolate out of the same vessel. The wealthy had even stopped decanting directly from a copper pot into a cup. Drinking chocolate now represented wealth and was given all the trappings to prove it. Chocolate was prepared in the kitchen and placed in the chocolate pot, or chocotalière, by servants, then brought to the public gathering of wealthy ladies, and delicately poured into cups and handed round by the magnanimous hostess. (Coe 156-159)

The best and most expensive chinoiserie hailed from Germany, where Johann Friedrich Böttger duplicated the art of Chinese fine porcelain making.


Chocolate pots were made from the most expensive of porcelain, and shaped in the fashion of teapots with some adjustments. Traditional teapots have a short, squat form into order to be able to keep heat in and extract the flavor from the swirling tea leaves that are actively stewing in the hot water. A low-seated spout is fixed with an interior strainer to keep the floating leaves in the pot once you are ready to pour the fully brewed beverage. Coffee pots, on the other hand, need a tall form and highly placed straining spout for the opposite reason. As it is basically a decanting mechanism for an already brewed beverage, the height of the coffee pot allows any grounds from the brew to settle to the bottom, or get caught in the strainer. (Righthand)

Chocolate pots can be hard to spot, as they often hybridize these two forms–typically tall, but often bulbous. Early European chocolate pots most always have a removable finial to allow for a mixing stick to create the desired froth and keep the chocolate mixed. As cocoa powder was developed and cocoa preparations replaced true hot chocolate, the stirring stick went by the wayside, and chocotalière became nearly indistinguishable from coffee pots. The last distinguishing characteristic of a coffee pot was the internal strainer where the spout and body meet, and a spout that lowered over time.

Drinking chocolate represented wealth, therefore decorations were those that affluent courtiers and nouveau-riche traders would value. Gone were the forces of Meso-American nature, or plantation life, and in came garden scene–often mimicking the exotic origins of the pot. Elaborately painted and gilt decorations brought the wealth of court on the surface of the chocolate pot. An 18th century fad called “Chinoiserie” depicted the European’s visions of Asian gardens with palm trees, umbrellas, and architecture that they imagined would be found in the gardens of the imperial court of China. As many of the traders were making fortunes off the new-found economy, the asian motifs became a temporary obsession throughout the continent and its colonies.

Pottery for the middle class living in British colonies was most often imported from Staffordshire England. Extremely fine china rarely made it across the Atlantic during the colonial period.

Chocolate drinkers in the British colonies of North America usually imported English middle-class pottery with basic garden motifs to take to their breakfast tables. Very little pottery was made in New England so imported china had a cache of wealth and the designs were reminiscent of the estate and gardens of England as colonists tried to keep up all the appearances of home. The wealthiest of families had their chocolate pots crafted by local silversmiths, and garnished with the family seal to tie their family names and crests directly with the wealth that the precious metal embodied.


Modern Global Values


As solid chocolate became available and ubiquitous throughout western culture, the packaging of it has changed with the form, but the still conveyed the values of the local surroundings. To make chocolate appealing to a mass Victorian audience, purveyors wrapped it in the trappings of health and wholesomeness. As modern food science undermined the myth of “healthful chocolate” and the western world was coming out of a financial depression, the ideology of wealth returned. Silver wrappers, foil lettering on thick, glossy boxes, expansive packaging, and silky imagery are on all price-points of chocolate. Our favorite addiction is made more expensive by giving it the trappings of luxury: heart-shaped boxes and ribbons; gilded truffles and patisseries. Feeling rich makes many of us very happy.

The fact that cacao is grown as a third world agricultural product, but consumed almost exclusively in comfortable homes of first world economies has been coming to the attention of consumers over the last half a century. For the socially conscious consumer–those whose values do not hold with personal indulgence without consideration to the cost to others and the planet–a whole new branding for chocolate has developed.

These consumers feel better about buying chocolate that is emblazoned with the iconography of Fair Trade, organic, or direct trade certifications–even if the certification system is more of a seasonal band-aid than a true economic transformation. (Sylla) The sheer plethora of virtuous symbols appearing on labels in the chocolate isle work to the benefit of the marketing. The variety of symbols and levels of individual certification system adds layers of confusion to the real benefits. The level of confusion is so high, there is no way the average consumer can understand all the nuances and impacts. In the end buyers spend more for a product that has a “seal of approval,” and go on their merry way with the psychological satisfaction of having done something good for the “other.”  They get to feel good without ever looking for any proof of the benefit these programs have on the lives of the farmers.

Slapping a feel-good seal on a wrapper has become so successful as marketing, that major companies are eschewing certifications that are attached to bureaucratic oversight of bona fide good intent, and instead are working toward establishing their own brands’ seal of ethical approval and creating home-grown social initiatives that are much easier to operationalize and do not threaten profits in the way that transforming the cacao supply chain would. Adding these icons into the patchwork of other initiatives ensures that social initiative logos appear on more and more packaging. Buying products branded with one of the myriad of ethical icons assuages the consciences of most purchasers. (Martin) In this way, we ensure that imagery that conveys these values will keep on proliferating on the packaging of our chocolate.

Works Referenced:

Brigden, Zachariah. Chocolate Pot. 1755. Silver. Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts.

Burt, Benjamin, and Nathaniel Hurd. Teapot. 1763. Silver. Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts.

“Crescentia cujete.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 03 Apr. 2017. Web. 07 May 2017. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crescentia_cujete>.

Coe, Sophie D., and Michael D. Coe. The True History of Chocolate. Third ed. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2013. Print.

Eaton, William M. Odyssey of the Pueblo Indians: an introduction to Pueblo Indian petroglyphs, pictographs, and kiva art murals in the Southwest. Paducah, KY: Turner Pub., 1999. Print.

Henderson, John S., et al. “Chemical and Archaeological Evidence for the Earliest Cacao Beverages.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, National Acad Sciences, 16 Nov. 2007, www.pnas.org/content/104/48/18937.full. Accessed 6 Mar. 2017.

Laudan, Rachel, and Ignacio Urquiza. “The Mexican Kitchen’s Islamic Connection.” Aramco World. Saudi Aramco Services Co, May 2004. http://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/200403/the.mexican.kitchen.s.islamic.connection.htm. Accessed 3 Feb. 2017

Presilla, Maricel E. The New Taste of Chocolate: A Cultural and Natural History of Cacao with Recipes. Revised ed., Berkeley, NY, Ten Speed Press, 2009.

Martin, Carla D. “Alternative trade and virtuous localization/globalization.” 5 April 2017, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Chocolate, Culture, and the Politics of Food.

“Metallurgy in pre-Columbian America.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 02 May 2017. Web. 07 May 2017.

Mozdy, Michael. “Cacao in Chaco Canyon.” Natural History Museum of Utah, Natural History Museum of Utah, 4 Aug. 2017, nhmu.utah.edu/blog/2016/08/04/cacao-chaco-canyon. Accessed 6 Mar. 2017.

Righthand, Jess. “A Brief History of the Chocolate Pot .” Smithsonian.com. The Smithsonian Institution, 13 Feb. 2005. Web. 23 Feb. 2017. <http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/brief-history-chocolate-pot-180954241/>.

Rose, Mark. “Olmec People, Olmec Art.” Archeology. Archaeological Institute of America, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2017.

Sylla, Ndongo Samba., and David Clément Leye. The fair trade scandal marketing poverty to benefit the rich. Athens, OH: Ohio U Press, 2014. Print.

Unknown. Anasazi [Pueblo] pottery, Pueblo Bonito, Chaco Canyon, New MexicoAMNH Digital Special Collections, accessed March 06, 2017, lbry-web-007.amnh.org/digital/items/show/38991.

Unknown. Drinking Vase for “om kakaw”. Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts, 2003.

Unknown. Gourd (jicara) with red figures. Circa 1700. Lacquered Gourd. Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Unknown. Jícara. Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts, 2003.

Image Citations:

Unless otherwise noted, drawings and photographs are works of the author and images may not be reused without attribution.



Invasion of Gods Through Pods and People

Invasion of the Body Snatchers Trailer, 1956 gives perspective of invasion through the eyes of a foreign entity. This exaggerated approach is what Pollan argues plants have done for thousands of years.

The idea of alien infiltration into the human race is far fetched from the vista of outer space, but a shift in perspective from the obscure sci-fi view of invasion reveals an entity regional, yet subhuman. One that has been here all along. The alien mother ship, according to the Mayan cultivators of this amazing Amazon Basin plant, are culture bringers; the gods themselves. Their modal is the Theobroma cacao.

In, The Botany of Desire, Michael Pollan discusses the symbiotic relationship that humans and plant life share. In his ground breaking book, Pollan exposes the control that intelligent plant life has on the human race. “We don’t give nearly enough credit to plants,” says Pollan. “They’ve been working on us – they’ve been using us – for their own purposes.” (Pollan, 17)

The Botany of Desire Trailer, 2009 is an academic and modernly eloquent take on the above, Invasion of The Body Snatchers. This media takes the idea of cacao invading the world and makes it plausible.

The idea of plants gratifying specific desires in the human condition reveals  their purpose to be a sort of world dominance. The opposing perspective on plant control is deemed by Pollan as a way to satisfy these desires by using humans to disperse themselves around the world. No such plant has been successful in doing so as the cacao tree. It’s versatility in food and health has succeeded in gaining control over human activity throughout centuries of its cultivation.

If this is credible, the conscious character of the cacao pod is not only that of a survivor, but a resilient mastermind who’s ingenious tactic is it’s adeptness to be linked with almost any other ingredient in the world. Through the wiles of consumption and medicinal properties, cacao reigns.

Beginning with the Olmec as the first Meso-American group to cultivate cacao, and following through up until the about 900 CE invasion of colonists, the early caretakers were manipulated by chocolate as they utilized its versatility. Seen in documents such as the Dresden codex, Madrid Codex, and Paris Codex (pre-columbian Maya books written in hieroglyphics) cacao was used as a food, a medicine and even a gift back to the gods who gave it. Our first glimpse into the versatility of chocolate was its use through the practice of Tac Haa, roughly translated as “to serve chocolate”. Early on in its use, chocolate was paired with many other Mayan staples. (Hurst, et al. 2002, 289) It was then drunk communally.

We know this due to human disbursement of cacao in differentiating pots, made specifically to house chocolate’s diverse uses. Spices and flowers were added along with maize and other grains. Its broad span reached as far as medicinal through digestive and anti-inflammatory related uses. It was a meal replacement as a gruel. This included maze which would cut hunger and chocolate which would energize. So we see very early on, this clever plant crafting itself to become an indispensable staple.

In her recipe section of “The New Taste of Chocolate, Maricel Presilla remarks on this amazing ingredient as a conductor of a taste symphony. “The following recipes have one quality in common: they showcase the wide-ranging possibilities of chocolate and imaginatively explore its capacity to absorb flavors and harmonize with other flavorings and spices.” (Presilla,143)

Cacao vessels inscribed with hieroglyphs (as to which pot was to be used for which recipe) contained combinations such as cherry, honey and a maize type gruel. These precursors aided chocolate in it’s migration to Europe. “A survey of early colonial cacao beverage recipes shows that early colonial Mesoamerican recipes usually had vanilla and water, and included a variable array of aromatic flavours, such as orejuela (custard apple) and piquant spices, such as chile pepper. Sweetness, by adding honey, occurred, as well. These Mesoamerican colonial recipes also show Europeanization, by the adoption of flavorings such as sesame, almond, and sugar. (Martin and Sampeck 2016, 41)


This South Coast, Guatemalan vessel depicts a female holding cacao. The copious amounts of cacao beans reveals that the crop is highly valued. The female herself is holding a small bowl filled with cacao pods. AD 250-450


In order for chocolate to make its way out of the Amazon basin, it must not only appeal to the indigenous cultivators of the pods, but the Europeans who would take it to the world. “Europeans sought to re-create the indigenous chocolate experience in America and Europe. Europeans in the New World and then the Old World somatized native aesthetic values.” writes Marcy Norton. “The migration of the chocolate habit led to the cross-cultural transmission of tastes. Over time, the composition of chocolate did evolve, but this was a gradual process of change linked to the technological and economic challenges posed by long-distance trade rather than a radical rupture in the aesthetic preferences of chocolate consumers.” (Norton 2006, 681)

A turning point for the cacao plant was the invasion of the Spanish and early colonialists who saw very early on the value of this versatile plant. As stated by Michael Pollan, we did exactly what cacao wanted us to do. Took it around the world.

Used originally as food for the elite, it quickly went viral and into everyones home. Seen through non-taste bias perspective, this would appear to be something right out of Little Shop of Horrors. However, in order to sustain its rule as staple in the early centuries of its being, it had to make itself useful in a wide variety of uses for the new world.

It was chocolates versatility that took it from its Meso-American origin to the entire world. By the 1800’s, chocolate’s versatility strikes again. Paired with sugar, chocolate began to be wildly consumed by British people of all social classes.

Food has been a focal point of colonization and labor through cultivation and even revolution throughout history.

Now modern day, the explosion of culinary delights thrives off pairings even the gods didn’t see coming. Chocolate reinvented itself once again. Chocolate can now be found in ingredients such as oysters, bacon and oranges. Is there room for chocolate in future foods? What will cacao do next to maintain it’s survival and master plan of world domination?

Another way chocolate has infiltrated the world is by being beneficial to human health. Health conditions such as indigestion and heart disease are treated with chocolate. These benefits are still early in discovery and insure that chocolate has not seen the end of its plan for world domination.

The future food and health booms see chocolate as an unexplored frontier as far as its variety in pairings and health benefits.

It is said by doctors that even in the 21st century, modern approach to nutrition and health, is similar to what we knew about surgery in the 1600’s, very little. This idea puts the combination of food and science in its very early stages of knowledge and health practices. Cacao for health purposes are then placed as a final frontier in breakthrough medicine, and solidifies the plant’s invasion on the human race as an indispensable crop we will soon be unable to live without. The more we discover, the more we realize the plant’s invasion on the human race, is indispensable.

-“A Square a Day Keeps the Doctor Away” is a modern twist on the historical advertisement boom for apples, “An Apple a Day Keeps the Doctor Away”. The video represents the popularity that cacao is attaining in modern culture as both a food and a medicine.

“The major goal… is to evaluate the variety of clinical benefits of chocolate and especially its polyphenols. Thus, dark chocolate could reduce the risk of heart attack and provide other cardioprotective actions if consumed regularly.” (Watchson et al, 10)

One product simply called “Cacao” is a supplement pill claiming to promote antioxidants such as polyphenols and the basic structure of catching and many other free radical fighting nutrients.

“All natural appetite suppressant, decreases appetite so you eat less. Helps you maintain healthy blood sugar levels. Helps you maintain healthy cholesterol and lipid levels. Provides a variety of antioxidants from two dozen herbs and nutrients. Provides healthy fiber. Balances mood. Improves will power and choice of food selection.” (Cocoa Supplement Pill Benefit, 2015, cocaobean.html)

Screen Shot 2016-05-10 at 11.47.32 AM
Cacao Powder 500mg showing the versatility of cacao through its unique ability to be fused as both food and medicine.


Chocolate’s versatility has given it a place in modern culture as an indispensable ingredient. By availing its delicious yet medicinal components for all to utilize, it has been involved in every major culinary turning point throughout history. The offerings of cacao that humans have some to rely on, is what has aided it’s longevity over thousands of years. It’s ability to be paired with a vast amount of secondary ingredients have gave it a place throughout the centuries. Chocolate meets demands that modern culinary trends place on it. With chocolate’s adaptability and versatility so vast, it is sure to stand the test of time as one of the most influential ingredients the world has ever seen. Saving and enriching the lives of those who cultivate as well as those whom consume this mysterious plant, cacao has shown it self to truly be a gift of the gods.


Pollan, Michael. The Botany of Desire: A Plant’s-Eye View of the World. New York: Random House, 2001. Print.

W. Jeffrey Hurst, Stanley M. Tarka, Jr, Terry G. Powis, Fred Valdez, Jr & Thomas R. Hester. “Archaeology: Cacao Usage By The Earliest Maya Civilization Nature” 418, 289-290 (18 July 2002)

Presilla, Maricel E. The New Taste of Chocolate: A Cultural and Natural History of Cacao with Recipes. Berkeley: Ten Speed, 2001. Print.

Martin, Carla D. ; Sampeck, Kathryn E . “The Bitter and Sweet of Chocolate in Europe”                                                                                                                                                                             8300 defect for UNSW Socio.hu, 2015, Issue special issue 3, pp.37-60

Marcy Norton “Chocolate and the European Internalization of Mesoamerican Aesthetics”                              The American Historical Review (2006) 111 (3): 660-691

Watson, Ronald R., Victor R. Preedy, and Sherma Zibadi. “Chocolate in Health and Nutrition”. New York: Humana, 2013. Print.

Sahelian, Ray. “Cocoa Supplement Pill Benefit, Antioxidant, Health Improvement.” RaySahelian.com. 14 Apr. 2015. Web. 25 Apr. 2016.

The New Old Way to Enjoy Mesoamerican Cacao

I remember when I first learned about spicy chocolate bars. About 12 years ago I found a Vosges Haute Chocolate dark chocolate chili bar at Whole Foods. I also heard about the movie Chocolat with Juliette Binoche. I quickly put two and two together, rented the movie, and with my grandmother, proceeded to savor chocolate in a way I never had before. You can’t really gobble down chocolate with a kick to it. It satisfies more of the senses and begs to be savored – held on the tongue until it melts and not chewed. While Vosges is now flanked by many other fine chocolatiers in creating spicy chocolates, I was amazed to find out that early Mesoamerican cultures did not consume chocolate in this fashion at all. Even though many companies who offer spiced chocolate try to make claims that their chocolate is made in traditional Mayan or Aztec ways, it wasn’t until after the Spanish brought cacao back to baroque Europe that refined and sugar sweetened chocolate bar as we now know it now came to be common place.

If chocolate as we know it did not exist back in Mayan and Aztec culture, why do we link spiciness and chocolate at all? Let’s start with the Mayans. Even though the Olmec civilization has been discovered to be the first users of cacao beans from the cacao tree, the recipes and evidence we have from Mayan culture shows they “brought chocolate making to a high art”(Presilla p. 12). Everyone drank cacao in Mayan civilization. There were fancier fired vessels that only the upper class had access to but gourds were mainly used to drink cacao. Cacao fruit pulp was drunk “in both fresh and fermented forms”(Presilla p. 12) and cacao beans were mixed with various herbs, grains and fruits as another type of drink. Achiote (also known as annatto) paste was commonly added to ground cacao beans and gave their frothy drinks a bright red color. There was also “ear flower” a blossom that gave cacao a spicy and fragrant taste in addition to vanilla, honey, allspice, maguey sap, and yes, dried chiles that were added to water and ground cacao paste.

Ingredients Mayans Added to Cacao

The other dish that Mayans consumed on a regular basis as more food than drink was a corn gruel called atole. Either ground lime-treated corn or fresh corn was mixed with water, cacao, ground seeds and spices like allspice. Another way cacao was eaten with food was possibly in the form of what we commonly know as mole, a spicy chocolate sauce served with protein dishes. This usage of cacao and chili peppers may have existed as far back as AD 450. Trace evidence found in tamale vessels showed evidence of cacao and capsaicin (chemical marker of hot peppers) with turkey bones (Presilla p. 15).

The Aztecs adopted many of the Mayan traditions with cacao but they put their own spin on some key aspects of its usage. The Aztecs forbade commoners to drink it and it was reserved for Aztec nobility, and the merchant class. Aztec warriors also were allowed to eat cacao but they were given small wafers or disks that were easy to travel with and then could be turned into liquid when desired. Aztecs still ate the cacao corn gruel but they reserved lower grades of cacao to add to such dishes.(Coe p.85) Many people automatically put the word “hot” before chocolate when they think of drinking the liquid concoction, and the Mayans were no different. The Aztecs however, liked theirs cool (Coe p.84). They also embellished upon the flavoring that the Mayans had added to their cacao drinks. Ground seeds like that of sapote, maize, chili, honey, allspice, achiote, vanilla, “ear flower” among other edible flowers like “string flower,” “popcorn flower” and “heart flower” were added in various combinations to make Aztec cacao drinks (Coe pp. 86-94).

When I learned of how the Aztecs and the Mayans took their cacao, I was glad to learn that refined sugar was a modern addition. Yes, both civilizations would sweeten their beverages with substances like corn, honey, and fruit nectars, but on the whole their drinks were on the tart, tangy, spicy, sour and savory side. When I fell in love with spicy chocolate, I also fell in love with that more bitter aspect of cacao. The aspect that on the whole producers have tried to hide from the modern consumer. Mass produced hocolate is often very sweet and to many that is a pleasant taste over cacao seed’s natural bitterness, but how much do we lose in terms of cacao’s complexity and nutrient properties when it is diluted with milk solids, vegetable fats and sugars? I think we lose a lot. While I’m glad there are options like the Guajillo & Chipotle Chili Super Dark Chocolate Bar from Vosges, I’m even happier there are people interested in traditional Mayan and Aztec recipes online.

Here are some top pics to check out:

Mayan Chocolate Drink

Lord Chocolate Drink Recipe

Mesoamerican Hot Chocolate

If you’re interested in learning about the “true history of chocolate” further, I would highly recommend watching this video with Michael D. Coe.


Presilla, Maricel. 2009. The New Taste of Chocolate, Revised: A Cultural & Natural History of Cacao with Recipes. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press.

Coe, Sophie D. and Michael D. Coe. 2013 [1996]. The True History of Chocolate. 3nd edition. London: Thames & Hudson.


Chocolate Cup Image

Mayan Cacaco Ingredients


Spanish Changes to Chocolate: Innovations or Adaptations?

Soon after arriving in the New World, the Spaniards realized the importance and value of chocolate to the Mesoamericans (Norton, 2004). Under Spanish rule, cacao production was increased, and soon it arrived in Spain, becoming a popular drink for the elite (Norton, 2004). Interestingly, there are many accounts that when the Spanish first tasted chocolate, they disliked the drink, finding it savage and not suited for Europeans (Norton, 2006). How, then, did chocolate become so popular in Spain? The Spaniards adapted the New World chocolate recipe to suit their tastes, adding innovative ingredients to make it more delicious (Norton, 2006). The Spanish were said to have hybridized the drink of chocolate, drinking it hot instead of cold as the Aztecs did, sweetening it with sugar, and putting Old World spices such as cinnamon and vanilla into the drink (Norton, 2006). The Spanish were thought to have appropriated the New World chocolate drink to make it suitable for European palates (Norton, 2006). However, I argue that many of these first accounts of Europeans disliking chocolate until it was more developed by the Spanish was created to mask the fact that a “sophisticated” culture enjoyed a drink made by “savages” (Norton, 2006).


A Mesoamerican woman creating a frothy chocolate drink by pouring it from one vessel into another from a substantial height (From Wikipedia)

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A Spanish painting depicting a molinillo, or chocolate frothing device, highlighting the presence of traditional Mesoamerican chocolate practices in Spain (From Norton, 2006)


There has been opposing evidence that the Spanish actually did enjoy the taste of the New World chocolate, and that adding sugar and other spices was the easiest way to recreate the New World chocolate flavor that they developed a taste for (Norton, 2006). In Mesoamerica, chocolate was consumed as a beverage, sometimes hot and sometimes cold, sometimes with maize, and often mixed with honey and other spices cultivated from the New World for flavor (Norton, 2006). It was also often poured from one container to the next to produce a froth (Norton, 2006). While the Spanish did change some of the ingredients of chocolate or ways it was consumed, it was all done to preserve the original flavor using ingredients more easily found in Europe (Norton, 2006). For example, Spaniards added sugar to the chocolate drink, which was just a modification from the Mesoamericans already adding honey as a sweetener to their drink (Norton, 2006). Sugar was not a revolutionary addition to chocolate, but simply a substitute for honey. Often many of the spices the Spaniards “innovatively” added to the drinks were trying to copy many of the flavors already added to chocolate in Mesoamerica; because New World flowers that were much harder to come by than spices already found in Spain, the recipe needed to be modified (Norton, 2006). Furthermore, Spaniards valued the customary foam of the Mesoamericans, and often used molinillos to froth their drinks to create a texture found in the traditional chocolate drinks of the New World (Norton, 2006). Finally, the Spanish seem to have even adapted the Mesoamerican social views of chocolate – in Spain, chocolate drinking was a social, and elite activity, just as it was in the New World (Norton, 2004).

Screen Shot 2015-02-19 at 8.58.18 PM
A Spanish painting of an aristocratic chocolate gathering, highlighting the presence of chocolate as a part of elite society (From Norton, 2006)


In conclusion, it can be argued that the desire for chocolate flowed “from the ‘barbarian’ to the ‘civilized,’ from the degenerate ‘creole’ to the metropolitan Spaniard, from gentry to royalty” (Norton, 2006). It is thought that the cultural bridge that allowed the taste for chocolate to infuse into the Spanish culture were the native women who served in the households of the Spanish men, some voluntary, some coerced, cultivating their taste in chocolate (Norton, 2006). Many chocolate encounters were also made in marketplaces in the New World, further introducing Europeans to the novelty and deliciousness of the chocolate drink (Norton, 2006). The common belief that the Spaniards improved the Mesoamerican drink of chocolate to make it fit to drink in Europe has evidence against it, as many of the Spanish adaptations were ways to recreate the New World flavor using common European ingredients. Perhaps this viewpoint was spread by the feelings of conquest over a lesser society, and that a drink had to be altered to be consumed by the more sophisticated culture. In reality, Europeans acquired a taste for Mesoamerican chocolate, and simply had to adapt it to the ingredients more commonly found in the Old World (Norton, 2006).



“History of Chocolate – Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.” N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2015. Accessed at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_chocolate.

Norton, Marcy. “Tasting Empire: Chocolate and the European Internalization of Mesoamerican Aesthetics.” The American Historical Review 111.3 (2006): 660–691. JSTOR. Web. 20 Feb. 2015. Accessed at: http://www.jstor.org.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/stable/10.1086/ahr.111.3.660

Norton, Marcy. “Conquests of Chocolate.” OAH Magazine of History 18.3 (2004): 14–17. JSTOR. Web. 20 Feb. 2015. Accessed at: http://www.jstor.org.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/stable/25163677