Tag Archives: Romance

Chocolate as an Aphrodisiac: A Historical Analysis

Dating back to the earliest known origins of chocolate—or rather its characteristic ingredient, cacao—this extraordinary substance has consistently been associated with socially intimate and aphrodisiacal properties. The particular manifestation of these aphrodisiacal properties, however, and how they have taken shape over time tells an interesting story of the power of media and advertising. Much of this early knowledge is situated around the ritual practices and mythology of the Maya civilization in the pre-Columbian period, during which cacao was heavily featured and revered in the context of fertility and marriage rites. In the Popol Vuh, the sacred book of the Quiché Maya documenting Mayan mythology, “when the gods were creating humans in their final form,” cacao was among the “foods which were to form their bodies” (Coe & Coe 39). This notion of cacao playing a role in the creation of human life is a recurring theme in surviving remnants of Mayan society, bringing to mind a clear connection with procreation and fertility. In much the same way, archeological/anthropological research has indicated the “widespread, perhaps even pan-Maya, use of chocolate in betrothal and marriage ceremonies” (Coe & Coe 60). Similar beliefs and rituals held true for Mixtec and Aztec societies, as we can see in this detail from the Codex Nuttall (Mixtec book) displayed below, or in the Aztec poem that refers to “‘flowering chocolate’ [as] a metaphor for luxuriousness and sensuality” (Coe & Coe 104).

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Figure 1: This image shows an exchange of a frothy cup of chocolate from the bride, Lady Thirteen Serpent, to the Mixtec King, Lord Eight Deer (1051 BCE) (Coe & Coe 97)

Even more explicit, is the account of Spanish conquistador, Bernal Díaz de Castillo, upon attending a lavish Aztec banquet in which he writes about the emperor, including that “ they brought him some cups of fine gold, with a certain drink made of cacao, which they said was for success with women” (Coe & Coe 96). While this certainly speaks to the Spanish conquistadors’ beliefs and interpretations of cacao, whether there is any actual truth to this testimony is unsubstantiated. However this did not stop the notion of cacao as a sexual stimulant from spreading throughout Europe after it was first introduced in Spain. Almost a century after for instance, Dr. Henry Stubbes (1632-72), a prominent English authority on chocolate, was “convinced, as were most of his contemporaries in England and on the Continent, that chocolate was an aphrodisiac” (Coe & Coe 171).

If we fast forward to the 19th and early 20th centuries, these themes associated with chocolate seem to not only persist, but become ever-more present. This is likely the consequence of two key changes in the chocolate industry, the first being Dutch chemist Coenraad Johannes van Houten’s 1828 invention of the hydraulic press, which allowed for the production of chocolate in solid form. The second shift lies in the industrialization of food, which gave way to mass production and, by extension, lower food costs, resulting in the democratization of chocolate (Coe & Coe 234-235). Considering its history as a substance once only available to the elite and wealthy upper echelons of society, this new potential for chocolate to be available and affordable to the masses meant immense economic opportunity—cue mass marketing. Chocolate advertising in its earlier days often featured women providing chocolate to their families, as the ideal wife and mother—roles which were both, at the time, at the forefront of any socially accepted notion of female identity. Kids were also considerably featured in these ads, thus by placing chocolate at the nucleus of the family bond, we are reminded of the original role cacao played in marriage and fertility for the Maya.

Figure 2: Nestle poster, c. 1898 – A mother, depicted in accordance with the beauty ideals of the time, is with her kids in nature, which advances the wholesome, natural image of milk chocolate
Figure 3: Post-war Rowntree’s Cocoa ad; acts as a clear representation of the role & expectations of women

In a similar vein, ads in which chocolate is the embodiment of romance soon seem to take center stage—at least for those ads targeted toward males (which speaks to a whole other dimension on the gendering of foods, but I’ll leave that for another discussion). While this notion of chocolate is clearly linked to aphrodisia, it is also convenient for business when it comes to special occasions centered around love and affection, such as Valentine’s Day and anniversaries.

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As is hinted at in the ads above, this idea of chocolate as the perfect gift for a girlfriend or wife goes beyond its supposed inherent powers of attraction, to suggest that it’s so irresistible that it could win over any woman. The implication here being that simply a box of chocolates can render a woman so feeble-minded and lacking control over her desires that it removes any sexual resistance. This, again, plays into sexist stereotypes of women as mindless, emotional, pretty, sweet objects, lacking any intelligence, authority, or confidence.

While it would be nice to think this sort of messaging has subsided in recent years, the truth of the matter is that this pattern of perpetuating socially prescribed feminine ideals and stereotypes, particularly in relation to romance and desire is still common practice, only less overtly sexist. A prime example of this is for an Axe commercial in which women uncontrollably lust over a man who, upon spraying Axe Dark Temptation, turns into a walking, talking piece of chocolate. Despite being cloaked in a veil of humor, this message here is no different from that found in earlier advertising.

In a similar vein, while society has changed over time to embrace more progressive values, namely freedom of sexual expression and independence, it’s interesting to see how chocolate advertising has used this to make even more explicit the connection between chocolate, desire, and pleasure—all the while often maintaining their use of female stereotypes and ideals, which only works to delay or set back feminist efforts. That is, women are sexualized, objectified, and interlaced with sexual innuendo in such ads where there is an apparent attempt to blur the lines between chocolate and sex. Oftentimes these advertisements are targeted towards women as a way of “encouraging self indulgence for a food that provides feelings equated to sex and love” (Fahim 7).

It’s quite interesting, or perhaps more than that, it’s rather informative of the power that lies in the hands of media and marketing to perpetuate a notion with little to no basis in fact, as evidenced by numerous studies debunking any real effect of chocolate on libido or as an aphrodisiac (Shamloul 2010, Brent 2018), yet remains at the core—in some way, shape, or form, of chocolate marketing strategy.

In analyzing the way these advertisements have marketed chocolate, we can see the progress of the way society views the female role. In the earlier times, we see how the importance of women in society is closely intertwined with reproduction as well as the simple-minded housewife trope, which was quite clearly reflected in the messaging of chocolate at the time. And, subsequently, as women’s expression of sexuality in media becomes more commonplace, the importance and relevance of chocolate in society comes in large part from overt and subtle references to its purported (yet unsubstantiated) supernatural or aphrodisiacs properties. Specifically, it aims to encourage “ self indulgence for a food that provides feelings equated to sex and love.

All that being said, while this current theme of hypersexuality, desire, and indulgence is unlikely to subside any time soon (especially considering it’s persisted over thousands of years), it will be interesting to see how and if the portrayal of women in ads related to chocolate will change in this new wave of female empowerment as a marketing strategy (e.g. the new Nike and Gillette ads), which still have their issues but show an overall positive progression towards gender equality.

Works-Cited & Sources:

Brent A. Bauer, M.D. “Do Natural Aphrodisiacs Actually Work?” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 8 Mar. 2018, http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/expert-answers/natural-aphrodisiacs/faq-20058252.

Fahim, Jamal, “Beyond Cravings: Gender and Class Desires in Chocolate Marketing” (2010). Sociology Student Scholarship. http://scholar.oxy.edu/sociology_student/3

French, Michael. “Modernity in British Advertising: Selling Cocoa and Chocolate in the 1930s.” Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 9, no. 4, 2017, pp. 451-466. ProQuest, http://search.proquest.com.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/docview/1973450713?accountid=11311, doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezp-prod1.hul.harvard.edu/10.1108/JHRM-05-2017-0015.

Robertson, Emma. Chocolate, Women and Empire: A Social and Cultural History. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2009.

Shamloul, Rany. “Natural Aphrodisiacs.” The Journal of Sexual Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, 2010, pp. 39–49., doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01521.x.

Multimedia Sources:

http://www.historyworld.co.uk/retroimage.php?opt=retro&pic=123

http://www.atticpaper.com/proddetail.php?prod=1954-whitmans-chocolates-ad-valentines-day

https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/business/cocoa-kings_the-pioneers-of-switzerland-s–chocolate-revolution-/43592024

https://blog.retroplanet.com/vintage-whitmans-valentines-day-ads/


Modern View on Chocolate

Chocolate has had a major significance in society over the years. Many events and holidays use chocolate as a major part of their rituals. Chocolate can be traced all the way back to Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Mayans and the Aztecs. These civilizations viewed chocolate as a great luxury item that had many powerful qualities. Chocolate was used in many rituals, spanning from marriage rituals, religious rituals, and even a belief that it could cure illnesses. The view on chocolate has changed over the years, however. Today, people have started to simply associate chocolate as a commodity involving sweetness and romance. Also, people are often unaware how their chocolate is being produced and if the cacao farms that produce it are being run ethically. I took the time to conduct an interview with a friend of mine to understand his view on chocolate and the significance it has to him. Clearly, there are quite a few myths that people have about chocolate and hopefully I am able to shed some light on why people view chocolate in such a different way than it had been looked at before.


imagesWhile chocolate has spread to many parts of the world today, it was not always so accessible to people. Cacao can be traced all the way back to beginning with the Mesoamerican civilizations. The Mesoamerican people viewed chocolate as a luxury item given to them by the gods. Many documents such as the Dresden Codex and Paris Codex, as seen to the right, allow us to see how big of a role chocolate played in the lives of these people. Cacao was often used in many different rituals and also was used to cure some illnesses. In the Mayan civilization, cacao was used for digestion and as an anti- inflammatory. Eventually, chocolate spread to the Europeans and underwent some hybridization. The Europeans would add ingredients to the chocolate such as cinnamon to enhance the flavor of it. Chocolate influenced many social aspects in Europe such as class, religion, and politics. Eventually, chocolate would spread more globally and although not having great success in parts of Asia, it would be consumed across the world including North America. People in today’s society are often unaware of the roots of chocolate and cacao. In conducting the interview, when I asked my friend where they would consider the roots of chocolate, they responded, “I think of European countries like Switzerland when I think of where chocolate started.” This shows how people are unknowing to the roots that chocolate has and where cacao has been traced back to. Also, while we have many views on chocolate today, with romance being the most common association, people are unaware how significant of a role chocolate played in early civilizations. When asked about the views early civilizations on chocolate, they responded, “I would imagine it was the same as today. Mostly a sweet candy with romantic significance.” I believe this undermines how much of an impact cacao and chocolate had on early civilizations and the important role it played in their everyday lives.

The process of producing chocolate is not the simplest process. There are many labor intensive tasks that must be performed on the cacao farms. Some of the tasks that are required include clearing trees, planting, grafting, applying fertilizers, and transporting items. While these may not seem like hazardous tasks, there many potential risks in completing them. In order to complete the work, workers must walk long distances on uneven and often slippery surfaces, use sharp and heavy objects, and also experience a great deal of sun and heat exposure. Many safety precautions are not put in place in order to ensure safety of the workers. Farm workers also very often lack access to bathrooms, filtered water, and clean spaces to prepare food. In finding out if people are aware of the labor involved in producing cacao and if they are run ethically, I asked my friend about their perception of cacao farms. He said, “Honestly, I don’t know too much about how the farms that produce chocolate are run. I would assume that most of the producers follow standards and the working conditions are secure.” It is quite evident that people are not informed on the standards that cacao farms have and how ethically they are producing their chocolate. Farmers are usually getting volatile income and therefore don’t get paid wages or a salary. As Amanda Berlan states, “Forced labour in cocoa is documented in many regions, ranging from Mesoamerica, South America, to Africa and the Caribbean from as early as the 1650s to the twenty-first century.” (Berlan, 2013) This evidence allows us to see that forced labor on these cacao farms is not a new phenomenon. Child labor is also a big exploitation on West African farms. Children provide cheap labor for cacao farms and are often put into often dangerous conditions for little pay. As you can see by the image on the right, children are put into hazardous imgres-2situations such as transporting heavy bags of cacao. This is extremely dangerous for the overall well being of the children. However, not all chocolate producers run cacao farms that are unethical. Some companies such as Theo’s pride themselves on making sure everybody in the bean to bar process can thrive. They want to ensure that their cacao farmers are in good working conditions and making a stable amount of income. As their website states, “Every Theo purchase directly supports the livelihoods of over 5,500 cocoa farmers in our supply chain and their 30,000 family members, enabling farmers to send their children to school, feed their families, and reinvest in their communities.” It is important, based on the lack of knowledge of cacao farms from the interview, that we must inform people of how cacao farms run and which take advantage and exploit their farmers.

 

While we are able to conclude that the history of chocolate and how it is produced is quite unknown to people, I want to investigate the modern view on chocolate and how advertisers and producers capitalize on this view. Over the years chocolate has developed the stigma for being used in romance and aroma. As noted by my friend in the interview, “For me, chocolate is one of those items I get when I want to reward myself or a friend. I feel it has that romantic vibe to it” Chocolate has been advertised to people as having the ability, especially on women, to entice an excessively aroused feeling. As you can see by the image to the right, women are constantly being depicted as being seducedSeduction by chocolate. Men, on the other hand, are often seen as of higher status in these commercials. Men get depicted as the ones who are constantly attempting to seduce the female and seen for their appearance, not brains. Advertisers are constantly picking up on the stigmas and perceptions that people associate with chocolate and then implement them into their commercials or advertisements. While it may not seem important that we are aware of how advertisers are showing chocolate, there are many implications that result from these marketing strategies. One of the main factors in the childhood obesity epidemic is the marketing directly to children. In today’s society of technology and social media, it is nearly impossible to monitor everything children see. Therefore, it is important that we don’t allow big chocolate producers to have marketing ploys that result in false stereotypes and ideas. In the chocolate industry, there has already been a shift in how we view race in chocolate. As professor Martin has stated in her lectures, chocolate and vanilla have become cultural metaphors for race. These metaphors insinuate that chocolate is to blackness and vanilla is to whiteness. These metaphors expand far beyond simply color. They have even developed their own associations as whiteness is purity and cleanliness, while blackness is sin and dirtiness. Another important note that Dr. Martin has made is how chocolate can reveal mainstream cultural blind spots in relation to racism and inequality. Due to this, it is important to educate people as opposed to exploiting stereotypes.

 

While we know that chocolate has been considered extremely beneficial in early civilizations, as it was often used therapeutically, people now may have a false sense of health in regards to chocolate. Many chocolate recipes were developed for what their creators believed to be maximal health benefit. However, people began to associate chocolate with health problems. In my interview, I asked my friend how they viewed chocolate and the benefits of eating chocolate and they replied, “I don’t know how beneficial it is to eating chocolate all the time, but I don’t think it hurts to have it sometimes as a snack.” While there are some risks in eating chocolate that range from toxins in the cacao shells to high amounts of sugar and saturated fat, chocolate has many beneficial qualities in being consumed. One benefit is the high amount of antioxidants received from eating chocolate. Also, chocolate has many cardioprotective qualities. This has been seen in cases such as the Kuna Case Study. In this study, they found that the Kuna people had better cardiovascular health than others due to the consumption of chocolate. Although some findings pose that this a potential complication due to the Kuna people also having a fish diet, chocolate clearly can have a positive impact on overall health. (Howe, 2012). According to Francene Steinberg, the effects of cacao flavonoids on cardiovascular health have been seen to reduce platelet reactivity, which then reduces the risk for clot formation. (Steinberg, 219) Chocolate also has the ability to work as an anti inflammatory and have anti tumoral properties. As seen by the image onfive foods the right, dark chocolate has been noted as a food that can help prevent cancer. As Watson states, Although in vitro studies have shown that cocoa flavonoids exert anti-tumoral effects, further studies are needed.” (Watson et al., 2013) However, the stigma that people have towards the benefits of eating chocolate often promote that there are very few and eating chocolate only causes health problems. People have found that the ideal chocolate to eat is 70% cacao and also limits cocoa butter content. It is also important to consider that the chocolate came from a cacao farm that avoided chemicals while being in a safe environment. Although chocolate has become seen as an unhealthy snack to some people, there are still many beneficial qualities to consuming chocolate.

 

Clearly, it is important to understand that there are many people who are unaware about the many facets of chocolate and the production of it. When looking at the origins of chocolate, many people do not know where it truly originated and how important it was to those people. The Mesoamerican civilizations regarded chocolate as one of the highest luxuries and used it in many different rituals. Also, it is evident that people are not very educated on the process in which their chocolate is produced. Many cacao farms, especially in West Africa, exploit adults and children in order to make more of a profit. With education and awareness of these poor conditions, people can understand how their chocolate is being made and if that company is upholding ethical standards. Not only may people not understand where their chocolate is being produced, they are often unaware of the potential benefits to consuming chocolate. Studies have found that chocolate provides key antioxidants and also improves cardiovascular health. Also, it is important to understand the myths and stereotypes associated with chocolate. Chocolate is constantly being shown as this sexual arousing item for females with men using it to seduce these women. Advertisements and companies capitalize on these stereotypes and use them in order to sell their product. After conducting this interview with my friend, I have began to get a better understand of how chocolate is viewed in most people’s eyes. Chocolate has played a major role in society for many years and it is important to inform people of the truths to consuming chocolate rather than keeping different myths and stereotypes about it alive.

 

Works Cited

 

Steinberg, Francene M, et al. “Cocoa and Chocolate Flavonoids: Implications for Cardiovascular Health.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 103, no. 2, 2003, pp. 215–223., doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50028

 

Howe, James. “Chocolate and Cardiovascular Health: The Kuna Case Reconsidered.”Gastronomica: The Journal of Critical Food Studies, University of California Press Journals, 1 Feb. 2012, gcfs.ucpress.edu/content/12/1/43.

 

Watson, Ronald R., et al. Chocolate in Health and Nutrition. Humana, 2013.
Berlan, Amanda. “Social Sustainability in Agriculture: An Anthropological Perspective on Child Labour in Cocoa Production in Ghana.” Journal of Development Studies, vol. 49, no. 8, 2013, pp. 1088–1100., doi:10.1080/00220388.2013.780041.

Chocolate and Romance: A Historical Exploration of Chocolate’s Association with Love

Chocolate in modern society is deeply intertwined with ideas of romance, love, and lust. From our celebration of Valentine’s Day, a holiday in which the exchange of chocolate and love notes is foundational, to advertisements from chocolate companies filled with sexual innuendos, we are constantly bombarded with ideas and images depicting chocolate’s association with romance. While many consider chocolate’s relationship with love to be a tactic manufactured by large chocolate companies to increase sales, there has been a long-standing association between chocolate and budding romance that began in pre-Columbian times. Chocolate’s affiliation with love and romance today is both rooted in tradition and influenced by capitalistic endeavors to sell more chocolate.

One of the earliest examples of chocolate’s role in romantic relationships is an ancient Mayan marriage ritual called tac haa. The ritual involved the potential groom’s family serving a chocolate drink to the father of the woman he wanted to marry. The men, including the father of the potential groom, father of the potential bride, and the admirer himself would sit together and discuss the marriage, while women remained removed from the negotiations. The women, such as the potential groom’s mother, would be involved in making the chocolate drink that was served to the guests (Martin, Lecture 2).  Another Mayan marriage ritual involving chocolate took place at the actual wedding ceremony. The Mayan bride and groom would exchange five cacao beans with each other, and wedding guests would drink chocolate together (Coe and Coe 61). Ancient rituals such as tac haa and the exchange of cacao beans do not directly resemble modern traditions surrounding chocolate and romance (i.e. heart-shaped chocolate boxes that are presented to significant others), but both ancient Mayan marriage rituals and heart-shaped chocolate boxes share the common thread of lovers being united through chocolate. It could be that rituals like tac haa serve as prototypes for modern traditions involving chocolate and courtship.

An example of a contemporary courting ritual involving chocolate is depicted in the following advertisement for Edible Arrangements: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b1I1FW1ffSc. The advertisement showcases a man setting up a romantic evening on Valentine’s Day. It is clear to any viewer that this is a romantic evening because of the cultural connotations of the objects presented in the ad. For example, the man lights candles, there is a rose and box of chocolates set on the table, and slow music plays in the background. Roses, candles, and chocolate are all objects American society associates with romance, specifically with courting women. As the advertisement progresses, the heart-shaped box of chocolates begins to speak, saying that he is the “ultimate wing-man,” reiterating the idea of chocolate being used to woo women in our society. The object of the advertisement is to demonstrate how Edible Arrangements is superior to the box of chocolates in wooing the woman. However, including the box of chocolates as something to compete with further emphasizes the notion of offering chocolate as an established method of courtship in our society.

Presenting chocolate to a significant other is not only used as a method of courtship in modern society, but has evolved into becoming fundamentally associated with the definition of “romantic” altogether. For example, AskMen, a popular website that offers life advice to men, contains an article entitled “9 Simple Romantic Ideas for Every Man” linked here http://www.askmen.com/dating/heidi_60/77b_dating_girl.html.  One of the romantic ideas listed is to “Be More Thoughtful,” and a suggestion on how to do so is to “leave [your significant other] a chocolate ‘kiss’ on her pillow before bedtime.” It is apparent that giving your partner chocolate should be viewed as a thoughtful gesture, and by doing so one can be described as “romantic.” Thousands of men visit AskMen for daily advice and likely follow it, indicating how chocolate has become an extremely conventional method of showcasing a man’s thoughtfulness and affection for a woman. Similarly, the way chocolate is presented in this article suggests that women too have been conditioned to feel loved and appreciated when their partner gives them chocolate.

Chocolate’s affiliation with romance extends further than simple courtship and gift-giving. In fact, people have long used chocolate as an aphrodisiac, or in combination with believed aphrodisiacs, to heighten sexual desire in themselves and in others.  A chocolate beverage called Atextli consumed by the Aztecs was believed to be healthy due to its supposed aphrodisiac qualities (Elferink 27). Chocolate beverages have also been documented as being used in love potions to seduce and control men. Margarita Orellana writes, “Because of its dark color and grainy texture, chocolate provided an ideal cover for items associated with sexual witchcraft. These included various powders and herbs, as well as female body parts and fluids, which women then mixed into a chocolate beverage and fed to men to control their sexuality” (81). Whether chocolate truly possesses aphrodisiac qualities or not, modern chocolate companies often use chocolate’s historical association with sexuality as the basis of their marketing. Linked here is an example of a typical chocolate advertisement from Lindt, a company known for their chocolate truffles: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RgGz2oNk0Pg. Although not overt, once can see how Lindt is sexualizing chocolate in this advertisement. Terms like “irresistible,” “passion,” and “luscious” have carnal connotations, and the image of the woman removing her scarf suggests that the idea of consuming chocolate has heightened her sexual desires.

The affiliation between chocolate and romance, beginning with Aztec and Mayan traditions, perseveres in modern times. Something else that has remained in tact is the idea of men using chocolate to court women, and women having sexualized responses to chocolate. There seems to be a stark difference between men and women’s interactions with chocolate that have become engrained into contemporary society.

Works Cited:

Coe, Sophie D., Michael D. Coe, and Ryan J. Huxtable. The true history of chocolate. London: Thames and Hudson, 1996.

De Orellana, Margarita, et al. “Chocolate III: RITUAL, ART AND MEMORY.” Artes De México, no. 110, 2013, pp. 72–96., http://www.jstor.org/stable/24318995.

“Edible Arrangements Advertisement.” YouTube, uploaded by MBR616, http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=b1I1FW1ffSc. Accessed 10 Mar. 2017.

“Lindt Chocolate Commercial.” YouTube, uploaded by LindtChocolateUSA, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RgGz2oNk0Pg. Accessed 10 Mar. 2017.

Jan G. R. Elferink. “Aphrodisiac Use in Pre-Columbian Aztec and Inca Cultures.” Journal of the History of Sexuality, vol. 9, no. 1/2, 2000, pp. 25–36., http://www.jstor.org/stable/3704630.

Martin, Carla D. “Mesoamerica and ‘The Food of the Gods’.” Chocolate, Culture, and the Politics of Food. Harvard College: Cambridge, MA. 1 Feb. 2017. Class Lecture.

“9 Simple Romantic Ideas for Every Man.” AskMen, http://www.askmen.com/dating/heidi_60/ 77b_dating_girl.html. Accessed 10 Mar. 2017.

 

 

 


 

 

Audrey Hepburn Sells Chocolate

    In the advertisement above a computer generated image (CGI) of Audrey Hepburn is used to sell Dove dark chocolate (Rohwedder). It is most likely aimed at the target demographic of women whom Audrey represents. The advertising company cleverly resurrects the adored late Audrey Hepburn. Her computerized look alike cleverly portrays Audrey’s iconic persona so convincingly that it almost feels like Audrey is and always will be with us. This association of Dove dark chocolate with Audrey the immortal legend who represents beauty, innocence, and sweetness refreshingly stands out amongst other ads which use sexualized imagery to sell chocolate products. The Dove chocolate advertisement emulates Audrey’s feminine and naive innocence, and the purity of 1950’s. Together these elements stand in stark contrast to the typical and predictable techniques to sell products with overt sexualization.

    The story line and narrative of the advertisement which is set in the idealized 50’s era, cleverly recreates the feel of the 1953 film “The Roman Holiday” starring Ms. Hepburn. The delightful visuals of a charming coastal Italian town, with hints of romance and the purity of an era of film long past, all work perfectly to set the tone. The computer generated Audrey Hepburn and her handsome lead man who closely resembles the iconic Cary Grant give a sense of a whimsical light-hearted unpredictability. The story starts with lovely Audrey sitting on a packed public bus which is stuck in a traffic. The mayhem is due to a collapsed fruit stand and it’s flamboyant owner. Audrey (or the CGI version of Audrey) looks longingly into her purse at her bar of Dove dark chocolate, then she glances out her bus window and meets the eyes of a handsome man in a car alongside the bus. When their eyes meet he gives Audrey an inviting wave gesturing her to his car. She smiles and without hesitation strolls out of the bus and playfully takes the bus drivers hat on her way to the handsome strangers car. She places the bus driver’s hat on the handsome man’s head, takes a seat in the back of his car- intimating and officiating him as her chauffeur. Looking slightly put out and yet besotted with her at the same time he drives away with Audrey in the back seat. The final scene is of Audrey with the handsome man driving on a winding coastal road as she snaps off a piece of Dove dark chocolate, placing it into her mouth framed by her perfectly scarlet glossed lips when the words “It’s not just dark. It’s Dove” appear against a perfect blue Italian sky. The advertisement refreshingly sells the chocolate by leaving the audience with the resonating feeling of romance, happiness, and beauty and lingering warm thoughts of chocolate. Moreover, the ad refreshingly empowers lovely and pure Audrey to sell their dark chocolate.

    Now that I have discussed the CGI version of adorable, innocent and flirty Audrey Hepburn as the star of the Dove chocolate commercial. For my advertisement, I created a montage of another side of Audrey. She remains the star of the ad, and similarly she is not sexualized in the ad in order to sell chocolate, but she does represents and evoke the opposite emotions of the romantic advertisement. The opposite of sweet, flirty, and happy go lucky is angry, sad, and unromantic and these emotions used correctly can also sell chocolate. In my advertisement, Audrey portrays women’s darker emotions and the audience is left with the resonating desire to consume dark chocolate. While both advertisements use the technique of using emotion to persuade, opposite emotions are employed in each ad. Audrey sells both while retaining her purity, innocence, and charm. Ultimately both advertisements sell chocolate, one to celebrate and relax and the other to comfort and calm, both appeal to the demographic of women.

    In the advertisement I produced the clips and scenes were drawn from a few Audrey Hepburn films to give the tumultuous and intense emotions of sadness, stress, and anxiety, which call require chocolate. Sometimes chocolate can be the only fix to receive comfort during these times. My advertisement implicitly delivers the message that if you need comfort, only a bar of dark chocolate will do. When I chose to use the more realistic, misunderstood, sad or angry, and even comical sections of Audrey’s films the technique of persuasion even worked on me. While editing my advertisement I had to eat dark chocolate. My persuasion technique was effective on me, who doesn’t turn to chocolate to comfort themselves. Find an escape in chocolate in good times and in bad like Audrey and every other woman.

“For the Brightest & Darkest of Times… Dark Chocolate”

References:

Grant, Eilidh L. “AUDREY HEPBURN SELLS DARK CHOCOLATE: Advertisement for Class.” Youtube. Eilidh Grant, 8 Apr. 2016. Web. 8 Apr. 2016. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ROK7JZSZyY&feature=youtu.be&gt;.

“”It’s DOVE:Feat. Audrey Hepburn” 2014 Commercial.” Youtube. Cinemagia Filmes, 15 Mar. 2014. Web. 6 Apr. 2016. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sB44n4ADg2Y&gt;.

Rohwedder, Kristie. “How Did They Make the Audrey Hepburn Dove Chocolate Commercial? Let’s Take a Look.” Bustle. Bustle, 28 Apr. 2014. Web. 06 Apr. 2016. <http://www.bustle.com/articles/22563-how-did-they-make-the-audrey-hepburn-dove-chocolate-commercial-lets-take-a-look&gt;.