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A comparison of Taza and Alter Eco: two companies seeking to create good chocolate in an ethical way

Ethical chocolate can come in different shapes and sizes. What ethical means to various chocolate companies can be very different, from fair work conditions, to organic ingredients, to environmental sustainability. Taza Chocolate is a company that boasts chocolate that is “seriously good and fair for all,” given their bold flavor and direct trade practices (“About Taza,” 2017). Alter Eco is a company that creates chocolate and other foods and aims to nourish “foodie, farmer, and field” with their sustainable food (“Our Story,” 2017). This post will explore the similarities and differences between Taza Chocolate and Alter Eco, two ethically minded chocolate producers, and how they portray themselves in order to appeal to consumers. Exploring their trade relationships, environmental impact, and community impact, it becomes apparent that Taza Chocolate has a main focus on fair and ethical trade as a means for driving improved conditions for farmers, whereas Alter Eco has a greater emphasis on sustainability and positive environmental impacts.

About the Companies

Taza

Taza Chocolate is a company founded in 2005 and based in Somerville, MA that creates stone ground chocolate. The stone ground beans create a unique coarse texture unlike most mass-produced chocolate on the market today. Besides the flavor, Taza Chocolate prides itself on its role as a “pioneer” in ethically sourced cacao. They are Direct Trade certified, holding them to standards of fair pay and partnerships with cacao farmers who respect workers’ rights and the environment (“About Taza,” 2017).

Alter Eco

Alter Eco is a food company in the business of chocolate and truffles as well as quinoa and rice with a focus on sustainability and fair practices. Their mission is to create a global transformation through ethical relationships with farmers and a focus on sustainability in their supply chain (“Our Story,” 2017). The company puts an emphasis on the benefits and social and environment changes that can be made through their practices.

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Trade Relationships

Taza stands apart from other chocolate companies because of its Direct Trade. Direct Trade is a third-party certification program that Taza has established that ensures cacao quality, fair labor, and transparency. Direct trade means what it sounds like – direct trade and relationships between cacao farmers and the company. Taza establishes relationships with cacao farmers in countries like the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Belize, having yearly visits to the farms and staying knowledgeable and transparent about where their beans are coming from (“Transparency Report,” 2015).

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Maya Mountain Cacao Farmers in Belize, a partner with Taza Chocolate

Direct trade is based on five key commitments (“Our Direct Trade Program Commitments,” 2017). The first is to develop direct relationships with cacao farmers, which they do by visiting their partners at least once per year. The second commitment is to pay a premium price for cacao of at least $500 above market price per metric ton of cacao beans, with a price floor of $2800. Their third and fourth commitments are to sourcing the highest quality beans, with an 85% or more fermentation rate and 7% or less moisture, and USDA certified organic beans. The fifth and final commitment is to publish an annual transparency report, which displays details of the visits to partner farms in various countries, as well as prices paid and amounts of cacao beans purchased. The key aspects of the Direct Trade certification that set it apart from others are the high premium paid for chocolate, which exceeds that set for Fair Trade certification, as well as the transparency report.

Direct Trade beings benefits to farmers in the form of a monetary premium paid for their beans, and it brings benefits to consumers with the transparency report that keeps consumers informed about the chocolate’s origins. However, Direct Trade can in some ways still fall short of being a wide-reaching solution to problems in the cacao-growing world. Direct Trade relationships can be fragile, and if Taza Chocolate were to go under, the partners would lose a key purchaser of their beans. Despite this, Direct Trade has economic benefits for the producers that cannot be discounted.

Alter Eco is Fairtrade certified. Fairtrade is a much more widespread certification, with 1226 Fairtrade certified producer organizations worldwide (“Facts and Figures about Fairtrade,” 2017). Fairtrade sets a price floor as a Fair Trade Premium that companies must pay for the products, so for organic cacao beans currently have a price minimum of $2300 per metric ton, and companies pay an additional premium of $200. This Fair Trade Premium is for investment in social, environmental, and economic projects, such as education or technology, which the producers decide upon. Alter Eco attributes their social impact to the effects of their Fair Trade contributions.

Comparing Direct Trade and Fair Trade, we can see that Direct Trade demands a higher price for cacao than Fair Trade, though both require premiums above the market price. Fairtrade sets aside premiums into a fund for investment into the community, whereas Direct Trade has buyers pay more for the beans, resulting in profits that could be used to invest in the community.

Environmental Impact

Sustainable farming practices have been on the rise over time, as international buyers have become more demanding about production practices. These practices can require a lot more hard work and labor, and require farmers to learn new processes, but they can be essential in order to survive long term as demand grows (Healy, 2002). A commitment to environmental sustainability is important to restoring or preserving nature’s biodiversity and preventing damage from industrial farming practices.

Taza Chocolate is committed to making an environmental impact through their use of USDA certified organic beans. Organic farming involves using practices that maintain or improve soil quality, conserve wetlands, woodlands, and wildlife, and do not use synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, irradiation, or genetic engineering (“About the National Organic Program,” 2017). By only purchasing USDA certified organic beans, Taza is supporting farms that comply to these standards set to protect and preserve the environment.

Alter Eco, on the other hand, takes sustainability and environmental impact to the next level. Not only do they purchase organic cacao, but also they have a focus on their carbon footprint in the supply chain and take active steps to minimize it. Working with the PUR Project and the ACOPAGRO cacao producers, Alter Eco supports an effort to reforest the San Martin region in Peru, which had suffered from severe deforestation in the 1980s. From 2008 to 2015, they planted 28,639 trees through this initiative, improving biodiversity, restoring soils, protecting wildlife, and providing necessary shade for cacao (“Impact Report,” 2015). In addition, they are a partner of 1% for the Planet, with which they commit to giving at least 1% of their sales to nonprofits aimed at protecting the environment.

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PUR Project farmers carrying saplings

Furthermore, Alter Eco seeks to be a carbon negative business, net reducing more than they emit, though this goal is still far-reaching. They post a yearly carbon report that breaks down consumptions of water, waste, and energy in chocolate production and approximates greenhouse gas emissions. In 2014, chocolate production directly or indirectly resulted in a little over 2,400 tons of CO2. Alter Eco uses its tree planting initiative as its efforts to offset CO2 emissions, and between 2008 and 2014 they had offset 7,690 tons of CO2 (“Yearly Carbon Report,” 2014). All in all, the transparency that Alter Eco provides about their environmental impact and their efforts to reduce it are satisfyingly informative. Though it can feel like their claims about sustainability are mainly a marketing ploy or way to make consumers feel good about their purchase, it is reassuring to have the information that allows consumers to be informed and hold Alter Eco accountable if they really wish to do so.

Community Impact

Taza and Alter Eco both make an impact on the communities of producers that they work with. Both companies have direct relationships with the farming cooperatives that they purchase cacao from, involving in-person visits to the partners. They build deep, trusting relationships with their partners that bring an extra level of support to the community. However, while Taza’s relationships appear to be mostly business, Alter Eco shows a commitment to community development. Alter Eco also boasts 48 development programs that they are involved in (“Socially Just,” 2017). They are also a certified B Corp, recognizing their social and environmental performance and transparency. Alter Eco uses Fairtrade premiums as their main way of supporting community development. It is important to note that this method of supporting developing is not a solution to large problems in poor regions, but it can have an impact in small ways by better stabilizing income (Sylla, 2014). Analysis of the impact that Fairtrade has on producers has pointed to a slight impact that is “all but exceptional” and is something that can better protect farmers from extreme poverty rather than lift them out of poverty (Sylla, 2014).

It is important to note that though Alter Eco does a good deal more marketing their positive impact on community development through their development programs and Fairtrade premiums, Taza still pays more per metric ton for their cacao. The difference between the two is that Alter Eco prioritizes their funds supporting community and environmental development projects, whereas Taza pays the money to farmers which is then theirs to use.

Conclusion

Both companies make a commitment to transparency in their chocolate. Taza produces a transparency report each year detailing the company’s purchases, prices paid, and visits to various cacao farms. Alter Eco lists details of each chocolate bar’s cacao origin, cocoa content, organic ingredient content, and fair trade certified ingredient content on their website. These added details, way beyond which the average consumer would demand of a Hershey bar, give these Taza and Alter Eco bars a story for the consumers to follow and a justification of the ethical nature of the purchase. Small scale chocolate companies often find success in the education of their consumers of things like single origin cacao and fine cacao flavors, as it gives them an edge on industrial chocolate which dominates with marketing and low prices (Williams and Eber, 2012). By emphasizing transparency and providing detailed information about cacao sources and flavor notes, Taza and Alter Eco are leveraging this.

Furthermore, Taza and Alter Eco market their products in a way to make the consumers feel like they are making an impact. Advertisements need to show images that make the viewer feel good, or at least good enough to buy chocolate, a luxury item (Liessle, 2012). By emphasizing the ethical nature and the social benefits of their products, these companies play up the consumer’s feelings of being altruistic by purchasing the chocolate bars. These companies may be flaunting their ethical practices as a marketing strategy, but if they are making a real, positive impact for the cacao-producing community or for the environment, then it is a win-win situation for the companies and the farmers.

Taza Chocolate and Alter Eco are both chocolate-producing companies that are ethically minded, where Taza has a large focus on direct trade partnerships with cooperatives, and Alter Eco has some focus on fair trade but a greater emphasis on environmental sustainability. These companies demonstrate how ethical practices in the chocolate industry can have different implications, whether they be for farmer compensation, farmer community development, greenhouse gas emissions, reforestation and biodiversity, amongst many others. What is important to take away is that some companies may focus on some impacts more than others, and it is important as consumers to be educated and to know what impact you believe is the most important to make.

References

“About the National Organic Program.” (2016, November). Retrieved from https://www.ams.usda.gov/publications/content/about-national-organic-program

“About Taza.” (2017). Retrieved from https://www.tazachocolate.com/pages/about-taza

“Annual Cacao Sourcing Transparency Report.” (2015, September). Retrieved from https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0974/7668/files/Taza_Transparency_Report_2015.pdf?10448975028103371905

“Facts and Figures about Fairtrade.” (2017). Retrieved from http://www.fairtrade.org.uk/en/what-is-fairtrade/facts-and-figures

Healy, K. (2001). Llamas, Weaving, and Organic Chocolate: Multicultural Grassroots Development in the Andes and Amazon of Bolivia. 123-154

“Impact Report.” (2015). Retrieved from http://www.alterecofoods.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/AE-ImpactReport-RF4-Digital.pdf

Leissle, K. (2012). “Cosmopolitan cocoa farmers: refashioning Africa in Divine Chocolate advertisements.” Journal of African Cocoa Studies 24(2): 121-139

“Our Direct Trade Program Commitments.” (2017). Retrieved from https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0974/7668/files/Taza_DT_Commitments_Aug2015.pdf?2533070453853065353

“Our Story.” (2017). Retrieved from http://www.alterecofoods.com/our-story/

“Socially Just.” (2017). Retrieved from http://www.alterecofoods.com/sustainability/socially-just/

Sylla, N. (2014). The Fair Trade Scandal.

Williams, P. and Eber, J. (2012). Raising the Bar: The Future of Fine Chocolate. 141-209.

“Yearly Carbon Report.” (2014). Retrieved from http://www.alterecofoods.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/AlterEco-Carbon-Report-2014_v2.pdf

Multimedia Sources

Dark Super Blackout Bar. [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.alterecofoods.com

Maya Mountain Cacao. [Image]. Retrieved from https://www.tazachocolate.com/pages/maya-mountain-cacao

Taza Chocolate From Bean to Bar. [Video] Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/33380451

Tree Saplings. [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.alterecofoods.com/environmentally-responsible/

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Alter Eco – Changing The Chocolate Industry As We Know It

The chocolate industry has received significant criticism in the past decades for unsustainable practices stemming from questionable labor practices, use of low quality ingredients, poor production standards and problematic advertisements trends. These troubled elements combined have been brought to light by professionals analyzing the human, environmental, economic and social impact of chocolate on communities across the world. Indeed, most of the problems highlighted within the industry are still rampant today. Very few companies can pride themselves for having sustainable practices from a bean-to-bar perspective. Alter Eco, based out of California, France and Australia, prides itself in providing its clients with “healthy, sustainable and socially responsible foods” (Alter Eco, 2015). Through its high standards for quality and social responsibility, Alter Eco is a powerful response to the problems highlighted with today’s chocolate industry and attempts to mitigate the problems rampant within the multi-billion-dollar industry of cacao.

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Alter Eco Foods provides its clients with a multitude of products ranging from chocolate bars, truffles, quinoa, and rice. Mathieu Senard, the co-founder and CEO of Alter Eco, states: [The company] started with chocolate, and then [evolved to] grains such as quinoa and rice. Our goal is to buy directly from cooperatives and, more importantly, pay a fair price” (Kaye, 2017). Alter Eco’s mission remains the same through its line of products. The company prides itself in its concept of “full circle sustainability” for all the products in its line. Full circle sustainability, in its most basic form, presents solutions to most of the problems highlighted by specialists in the chocolate industry. Most of the problematic companies view sales and production as a two-way street between the client and the business. Alter Eco views its everyday business practices from a different perspective by adding the environmental impact of production in their equation. With its globalized market, Alter Eco Foods is showing its competitors that sustainable practices in the labor, ingredients, production and marketing spheres is both attractive and delicious to consumers across the world.

The issue of child labor is an epidemic in Cacao plantations across the globe, and even more dominantly in Cote D’Ivoire. Chanthavong, in his analysis of child labor in chocolate production, writes: “Slave traders are trafficking boys ranging from the age of 12 to 16 from their home countries and are selling them to cocoa farmers in Cote d’Ivoire. They work on small farms across the country, harvesting the cocoa beans day and night, under inhumane conditions.” The problem of child labor, regardless of the production goals, is an incredibly sensitive issue that many governmental and non-governmental organizations are attempting to handle. In its efforts to limit the spread of child labor in Cote D’Ivoire and across the glove, Alter Eco sources its cacao beans from South American farmer-owned plantations, more specifically Peru and Ecuador. Furthermore, the company sources its Cacao butter from Dominican Republic, cutting any sort of possibility for economically- or socially-encouraging abusive labor practices. The company undoubtedly prides itself in its “single origin, highest quality cacao beans.” Alter Eco’s sustainable labor standards go much further than avoiding cacao originating from questionable sources with risk of child labor involvement. The company aims to rectify the issue of unsustainable labor practices through fair trade relationships, development programs, and women empowerment programs. Fair trade relationships are at the forefront of the sustainable labor practices push forth by the company’s values. Professor Martin from Harvard University writes: “Landlessness remains a serious problem among the descendants of enslaved people throughout the cocoa producing world today.” To further remedy these rampant issues, Alter Eco prides itself in sourcing all of its products from small-scale, farmer-owned cooperatives. Alter Eco is partners with the Institute of Marketecology (IMO), Fair Trade USA and the Fair Trade Labelling Organization (FTLO). This list of high-level certifications provides clients with the certainty that the labor practices for producers are socially acceptable and sustainable and that the values of the company for providing producers with good living and working conditions are followed.

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Alter Eco’s efforts to offer a socially- and ethically-acceptable product do not stop at the location and origin of its labor force. The company put in place a variety of development programs in order to increase the likelihood of sustainability of its producers and workers. Its Fair Trade Premiums, which allocate money throughout the supply chain, have allowed Alter Eco’s sugar cooperative, Alter Trade, to build a training center for their employees in the Philippines, simultaneously serving as an assistance center for families to visit. Furthermore, in its full-circle attempt to provide all workers with social and economic support, Alter Eco addresses an underlying issue in today’s farming practices in its development of leadership and empowerment programs for women. Women within the farming industry are often viewed as second-class individuals due to the utterly and outrageously outdated assumption that they will not be as useful as men on the land. Alter Eco writes: “Gender equality is an important aspect of the Alter Eco business model, all the way down to the field.” Through such a stance, Alter Eco attempts to remedy the gender disparity and inequality within the farming industry through maintaining that “women will assert their due role and space in both the management of the homestead farming economy and in the governance of [the land]” (AlterEco.com).

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The issue of unsustainable environmental practices within the chocolate industry is one Alter Eco addresses with strength. Indeed, as stated earlier, Alter Eco prides itself in adding the environment in its equation for sustainable production practices, which is something very few businesses work towards. Professor Martin from Harvard University, in her presentation entitled “Psychology, Terroir, and Taste,” states that Terroir and Harvesting practices can strongly affect, both positively and negatively, cacao quality and quantity. Furthermore, “the use of pesticides on the farms can lead to the destruction of part of the soil flora and fauna through both physical and chemical deterioration” (Ntiamoah, 2008). Alter Eco prides itself in assuring that all of its cooperative farms maintain their fields within American and European standards for organic certification. Such a certification makes sure the consumers are aware of what they are getting: a product “free of synthetic additives like pesticides, chemical fertilizers, and dyes, and [that] must not [have been] processed using industrial solvents, irradiation, or genetic engineering” (Henry, 2012). Such sustainable ecological and organic practices put forth Alter Eco’s values in promoting a product that is good for farmers, earth, and consumers. Alter Eco’s efforts in promoting sustainable environmental practices do not end at the farm or on the plantation. Although the company goes to great lengths to maintain its organic certification, it even goes steps further in pushing forward its values of sustainability. Through its commitment to becoming a carbon-negative business, Alter Eco has already received its Carbon-neutral certification, which confirms the company offsets the same amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) as it produces. “Alter Eco works closely with PUR Project and [its] farmers to plant trees for the amount of CO2 [produced]” (Alter Eco, 2017). Furthermore, in its efforts to become a carbon negative business, Alter Eco started its emission subdivision called PUR Project. “Contrary to offsetting, which consists in handling carbon compensation in other places by uncorrelated people and means, the insetting includes the handling of carbon compensation into the commercial dynamics of the company” (PUR Project, 2017). In other words, Alter Eco’s insetting efforts are rooted deeply in the idea that you must give back to the soil and air from which you took. In having an impact within its supply line, Alter Eco can assure that its efforts are not in vain, and that, although it plans to plant an additional 7,776 trees in 2017, the 28,639 trees (Alter Eco, 2017) already planted since 2008 are truly being put to good use to reinvigorate the soil from which so much is produced.

Alter Eco’s efforts to make their products more environmentally-friendly do not stop at their carbon-neutral status. They indeed go even further to make their products truly “full circle sustainable.” The packaging in which their chocolate and truffles are placed are fully compostable. Plastic and the conventional polyethylene packaging are quite detrimental to the environment due to the astronomical quantity of plastic sent to landfills or that finishes its life course in the oceans. The packaging developed by Alter Eco provides an eco-friendly alternative to the original plastic packaging found for most chocolate bars. This new packaging is made from compostable materials, GMO free, and without any toxic ink. Mathieu Senard adds: ““We believe the impact of our packaging is just as important as the product itself. How could we call ourselves a responsible, sustainable company when much of our packaging was going to landfills to live for hundreds of years?” (Alter Eco, 2015). This question raised by Senard is one answered by very few companies, which makes Alter Eco that much more efficient in its goal of changing the dynamics of chocolate production across the globe. To top off its environmental goals, Alter Eco has partnered with the 1% For the Planet Fund, which gives 1% of the company’s sales to a non-profit with environmental improvement goals.

 

 

Businessman David Ogilvy was once quoted for saying: “The more informative your advertising, the more persuasive it will be.” Advertisements and marketing are truly at the forefront of the chocolate industry’s sales. Whether it is for Valentine’s Day, Easter, Christmas, or Halloween, chocolate advertisements are all over television networks, the internet, and social media. Nonetheless, there are many problems and complaints associated with today’s chocolate industry and its marketing techniques. During her lecture at Harvard University about “Race, Ethnicity and Gender” in today’s chocolate industry, Professor Carla Martin elaborated on today’s chocolate marketing techniques and its associated prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination. Most of this discrimination comes in the form of racism or sexism. Women are portrayed as irrational in the presence of chocolate while men are portrayed as sexualized bodies. Simultaneously, race is also being portrayed in stereotypical and offensive ways. Alter Eco attempts to go against all these rampant problems with marketing for chocolate. The company presents its potential buyers with an honest, informative advertising. Fagerhaug (Honest Marketing, 1997) writes: “The main point about honest marketing is to run the business in such a way that a customer at any time can feel the certainty any customer longs for; that he or she made the right choice.” When a customer purchases a product from Alter Eco, there is a directly associated certainty in the quality and honesty of the product received.

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In conclusion, Alter Eco attempts to provide its clients around the world with a sustainable chocolate product that tackles most, if not all the problems associated with today’s chocolate market. Through its fair labor practices, honest ingredients, conscientious production techniques and reliable advertisements, Alter Eco gives its customers exactly what they can expect. If more companies put as much care and attention in their products as Alter Eco does, the world would be a much better place. Alter Eco is undoubtedly part of the solution to the problems in the world’s chocolate and cacao industries.

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Works Cited:

“Alter Eco – B Corporation”. B Corporation Website. Fair Trade & Organic Foods, 2017.

“Alter Eco Foods”. AlterEco.com, Web. Accessed 05.03.2017.

“Alter Eco 2015 Impact Report”. AlterEco.com. Pages 7/7. 2017.

Business Wire Magazine. Alter Eco Logo Image. Media Image (Jpeg). Web. 05.03.17. http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20160419005633/en/Alter-Eco-Unveils-Annual-Full-Circle-Sustainability-Social

Chanthavong, Samlanchith. “Chocolate and Slavery: Child Labor in Cote D’Ivoire.” TED Case Studies. American University. Pages 17/17. 2017.

Fagerhaug & Andersen. “Honest Marketing: A Coherent Approach to Conscientious Business Operation.” Norwegian University of Science and Technology. 2017.

Henry, Alan. “What Does Organic Really Mean, And Is It Worth my Money?” Lifehacker.com. 2012.

Laye, Keon. “Alter Eco Wants to Make Chocolate a Regenerative, not Extractive, Industry.” Triple Pundit Online Publishing, 2017.

Lovely Package. Alter Eco Packaging Image. Media Image (Jpeg). Web. 05.03.17. http://lovelypackage.com/alter-eco/

Martin, Carla D.“Race, ethnicity, gender, and class in chocolate advertisements”, Harvard University, CGIS, AAAS 119x, 2017.

Martin, Carla D. “Slavery, abolition, and forced labor”, Harvard University, CGIS, AAAS 119x, 2017.

Martin, Carla D. “Psychology, Terroir, and Taste”, Harvard University, CGIS, AAAS 119x, 2017.

“Mission/Values.” Fair Trade USA. Fair Trade USA, 2016.

Ntiamoah, Augustine. “Environmental impacts of cocoa production and processing in Ghana: life cycle assessment approach.” Journal of Cleaner Production, Print. 2008.

Plan Vivo. Pur Project Logo image. Media Image (Jpeg). Web. 05.03.17. http://www.planvivo.org/

Smedley, Tim. “Forget About Offsetting, Insetting is the Future.” The Guardian. Web, 2015.

Squicciarini & Swinnen. “The Economics of Chocolate”, Oxford Scholarship Online, 2016.

Slave Free Chocolate. Chocolate’s Slave Trade Image. Media Image (Jpeg). Web. 05.03.17. http://www.slavefreechocolate.org/

The Problem of Child Labor in the Cocoa Plantations. Africa News Service, Feb 2, 2012

WordPress.Willandmegan. Alter Eco Chocolate Bar Image. Media Image (Jpeg). Web. 05.03.17. https://willandmegan.wordpress.com/tag/alter-eco/

Putting the Pieces Together: An Analysis of Chocolate Advertising

For an industry trying to rid itself of a reputation rooted in unfair labor practices and misrepresentation, DOVE’s advertisement (below) does the opposite. The contrast between black and white appears prominently, the presumed consumption of chocolate by a woman suggests its gendered attribution, and the portion-controlled offering insinuates that people do not have the ability to resist consuming chocolate, overemphasizing its alluring effects. In the following analysis, I consider these three shortcomings of this advertisement, and create an alternative option which takes them into account. Instead of marketing chocolate in a racialized, sexualized, and obsessive manner like DOVE, and many chocolate companies do today, the new advertisement I created focuses on giving chocolate as a gift between friends. By placing the pieces of chocolate in the shape of a heart, the intention is twofold: to value the source of its production and to demonstrate the way chocolate can bring people together.

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2008 Dove advertisement (http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/files/2010/11/dove.jpg)

DOVE Chocolate

DOVE Chocolate was founded by Leo Stefanos in the 1950s, who named “the new treat after his south side candy shop, a moniker chosen for its ‘peaceful’ quality” (Dove Chocolate 2009). See the DOVE Chocolate timeline here. In 1986, DOVE was acquired by M&M/Mars, which worked to improve the appeal of the chocolate, refining DOVE’s taste in the process. DOVE is known as a creamy indulgence, lying on a spectrum between the all-American Hershey and high-end Ghirardelli products. The advertisement above, released in 2008, demonstrates the line’s emphasis on how DOVE gives its consumer ‘me-time.’ The product is intended to be indulgent, using pure cocoa butter to create a smooth texture; DOVE centers its advertising approach on giving consumers their “me” moments in the midst of busy work and home lives.

Advertisement Critique

Upon viewing the DOVE advertisement initially, I noted the contrasting dark and light shades throughout the image. Chocolate and vanilla have long served as metaphors for race (Martin Lecture 9). Vanilla is linked to whiteness, associated with purity and cleanliness, while chocolate is linked to blackness, associated with impurity and sin, dirtiness, and sexuality. In this advertisement, the brown bed sheets signify darkness, closely resembling the color of the chocolate bar at the bottom of the image, and representing the enslaved West African cacao farmers. The woman’s expression portrays the pleasure experienced by a white consumer after enjoying a piece of DOVE Chocolate, removed from the labor of the farmers which provides the source of her contentment. Carol Off demonstrates her reaction to the forced labor that children in Cote d’Ivoire perform. “I feel the profound irony before me: the children who struggle to produce the small delights of life in the world I come from have never known such pleasure, and most likely, they never will” (2008).

The advertisement’s use of dark and light represents the distinction between the wealthy, white American customer who blissfully dreams of the piece of DOVE Chocolate she ate and the West African cacao farmers who toil away to produce it. The use of contrasting colors and shades extends its role in symbolizing darkness and whiteness; chocolate serves as a euphemism for people of color against the color of the white woman who has just enjoyed chocolate as an indulgent treat.

The woman’s presence in the DOVE Chocolate advertisement portrays females as irrational actors who use chocolate to indulge themselves. The woman seems lost in an alternative world as a result of consuming chocolate. In fact, “the consumption of chocolate in the west became feminized early in its history” (Robertson 2009). Here, and in many other chocolate ads, women are portrayed as having a sexualized relationship with chocolate (Robertson 2009). Thus its marketing includes romanticism and self-indulgence, continuing the stereotype of an excessive passion related to chocolate consumption.

Finally, this image’s advertisement of portion-controlled chocolate emphasizes the fact that consumers cannot refrain from eating too much chocolate, particularly in the West. Candy became demonized alongside the temperance movement in the late eighteenth century (Martin Lecture 7). Candy became increasingly regarded as the cause for childhood cavities and obesity among “overindulging adults.” Lawrence Allen explores how the Big Five chocolate companies battled over their presence in China, evaluating the difference between the perception of chocolate as a good in the East versus the West. “It is also the inside story of East meeting West through the introduction into China, a xenophobic land of austerity and deprivation, of an icon of the Western world’s decadence and self-indulgence: chocolate” (2010). The Western market’s regard for chocolate as a luxurious, indulgent good for oneself contrasted with the Eastern image of chocolate for gift-giving purposes. However, alongside this self-indulgent use is the idea that people do not have the self-control to limit their consumption, which is suggested through the woman’s expression and the wording at the bottom of the ad.

new chocolate ad

New Advertisement

Above, I created an alternative advertisement for DOVE Chocolate. It excludes the presence of people in order to remove stereotypes based on race, ethnicity, and gender. This omission also removes any sexualized themes from the advertisement. In this ad, chocolate is not portrayed as an object that cannot be resisted; instead of focusing on self-indulgence through having a “[me] moment,” DOVE Chocolate is used to do something for others. While DOVE encourages people to reconnect with themselves, my advertisement encourages them to reconnect with each other and with its sourcing. I included the Rainforest Alliance symbol within the ad (below) to educate consumers about DOVE’s agreement that 100% of its cocoa are from Rainforest Alliance certified farms. These “well managed cacao farms help reduce soil erosion, improve air quality, and provide a habitat for animals, often conserving remnants of once-plentiful tropical forests” (Dove Chocolate 2009).imgres

Conclusions

By portraying DOVE Chocolate as a way of fostering friendships and as a sustainable chocolate company, the new advertisement emphasizes its beneficial qualities rather than furthering stereotypes perpetuated throughout the modern industry. “Adverts have perpetuated western sexist and racist ideologies under a veneer of pleasurable consumption, and have divorced chocolate from the conditions of production” (Robertson 2009). Modern chocolate advertisements display a racialized and sexualized presentation of the product; the above ad suggests that humans cannot limit their indulgence and need outside assistance to resist the temptation. The ad that I proposed brings DOVE’s positive attributes to the forefront, deemphasizing the way it has been previously misrepresented by focusing on friendships instead of sexualized relationships, and on the company’s sustainable practices.

Works Cited

Allen, Lawrence L. “Chocolate Fortunes: The Battle for the Hearts, Minds, and Wallets of China’s Consumers.” Thunderbird International Business Review 52.1 (2010): 13-20.

Dove Chocolate. 2009. Cocoa Sustainability. Retrieved April 3, 2016, from https://www.dovechocolate.com/aboutDove/CocoaSustainability.

Off, Carol. Bitter Chocolate: Investigating the Dark Side of the World’s Most Seductive Sweet. Vintage Canada, 2010.

Robertson, Emma. Chocolate, Women and Empire: A Social and Cultural History. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009.

Images and media

Dove Chocolate. 2009. The Dove Story. Retrieved April 2, 2016, from https://www.dovechocolate.com/aboutdove.

Dove pure silk bar 2008 advertising image. Web. 2 April 2016. http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/files/2010/11/dove.jpg

Rainforest Alliance certified logo. Web. 3 April 2016. http://www.rainforest-alliance.org/.

 

 

Askinosie Chocolate: A Leader in High Quality Chocolate and Sustainable Business

Chocolate, once a luxury consumed only by the elite, has become an every day good for those of us fortunate enough to live in the better-developed parts of the world. It is easy to walk into the nearest convenience store and find a pretty large selection of different kinds of chocolate (albeit produced by the same few major corporations). But among all of the flashy chocolate wrappers advertising added delights like caramel and nougat, there is very little to inform the consumer about where their chocolate is coming from, how it was made, and what is actually in it. As Kristy Leissle explains, in the 19th century, when it was predominantly artisans making chocolate, the origin of cacao beans was clearly advertised as a measure of quality, but in the 20th century, rising industrial chocolate makers were more interested in selling particular candy bars, and “and thoroughly effaced any links with the sweaty, tropical farms whence their primary ingredient came” [1]. In fact, most chocolate consumers today are entirely unaware of the processes through which a chocolate bar is made and the sheer amount of labor that goes into turning cacao into chocolate. And in today’s modern society when people balk at the idea of their clothes being made in a sweatshop in Asia, people should also be questioning whether or not their food has been ethically produced—this is true for chocolate in particular not only because chocolate is still technically considered a luxury item, or a treat, but also because of the extensive history of slave labor, exploitation, and racist advertising within the chocolate industry.

Awareness is the key here—what kinds of practices are consumers condoning when they buy certain brands of chocolate? And if the answer makes them uncomfortable, what can they do about it? For most consumers, abandoning the consumption of chocolate is out of the question, but luckily, there are more and more chocolate companies out there that provide the amount of transparency that can help consumers make the right decisions. Increasingly more chocolate producers are becoming bean-to-bar chocolate companies, meaning that they oversee the production of the chocolate from the cacao bean to the finished product. These companies are often employed in direct trade relationships with the farmers that they get their cacao from and even more companies have Fair Trade and Organic certifications. Each of these different types of farmer-producer-consumer relationships has its pros and cons when it comes to addressing the issues that prevail in the chocolate industry, but at the end of the day a certification is just a piece of paper and a claim of direct trade could be a marketing ploy—what’s really important is how these companies are presenting themselves and their chocolate, whose best interests they truly have in mind, and how transparent they are with their practices and their intentions. In 2005, the World Summit on Social Development identified three goals for sustainable development that have come to be known as the “three pillars of sustainability”: social development, economic development, and environmental protection [2]. I believe that these goals can and should be directly applied to the business model of an ethically run chocolate company. Chocolate’s history is not without its fair share of social implications, so, as contemporary consumers of chocolate, it is our responsibility hold chocolate companies accountable for their actions and to ensure that our money is going towards supporting companies that believe in not only producing a high quality product, but also in maintaining a sustainable and healthy relationship with that product.

One company that I feel is leading the way as a shining example for other bean-to-bar chocolate companies is Askinosie Chocolate. A criminal defense attorney for twenty years, Shawn Askinosie became a chocolate maker in 2007. He learned all he could about chocolate-making and cacao and soon found himself in the Amazon studying how the post-harvest techniques of cacao farmers influenced the finished chocolate’s flavor. But Askinosie was interested not only to crafting high quality chocolate, but also to weaving social responsibility into everything that the company does; he confidently says now: “We’re dedicated not just to making the best quality chocolate you can buy, but to making it in such a way that the more you learn about it, the better you feel about it” [3]. The company’s mission statement rings along the same lines: “We at Askinosie Chocolate exist to craft exceptional chocolate while serving our farmers, our customers, our neighborhood, and one another, striving in all we do to leave whatever part of the world we touch better for the encounter.“ Askinosie Chocolate stands out to me as a bean-to-bar chocolate company because they hold doing as much good as they can in the world just as importantly as crafting high quality chocolate. They are very aware of the impact that they, as a chocolate company, can have on the world and are determined to use that power responsibly, giving back to the communities that provide them with their product and educating the rest of the world about ethical business practices. In this essay, I will analyze how Askinosie Chocolate sells and presents itself and its ideals, how it fulfills the criteria for transparency in its processes, and how it goes above and beyond in developing sustainable practices. In doing so, I plan to show why I believe that Askinosie Chocolate is a great part of the solution to the problems that plague the chocolate-cacao supply chain.

Before I move any further, I would like to make it clear that my impression of the Askinosie Chocolate company and how they present themselves comes directly from their website at https://askinosie.com/. The popularity of the Askinosie Chocolate company is part of a rising focus on what is referred to as ethical eating—Julie Guthman explains that, in this view, consumption practices are driven by a conscious reflexivity, where customers pay attention to how food is made and then reflects upon the consequences of that knowledge when making future food-related decisions [4]. But because ethical eating is the latest trend, many companies that boast ethical practices are actually more focused on other things, advertising the luxuriousness of their chocolate instead, for example. As such, Askinosie Chocolate takes great care to portray that social, economic, and environmental responsibility are an integral part of their company. The Askinosie Chocolate website is simply, but elegantly designed—following an earthy-toned color scheme, the three centrally positioned links at the top are labeled “shop” (their online store), “learn” (a plethora of information about their company), and “wholesale” (for retailers interested in selling their products and being part of the team). The banner that takes up the top portion of their website shuffles between commendations on their products and images of the several sources that they get their cacao beans from. Already, it is clear to see that the image that they’re selling is that their business (chocolate-making) and their mission (doing good in the world) go hand-in-hand.

A screenshot of what a visitor to Askinosie Chocolate’s main website would first see on the home page.

Askinosie Chocolate sells a large variety of chocolate-related products: chocolate bars, cocoa powder, chocolate nibs, chocolate spread, chocolate beverages, the vast majority of their ingredients are produced at their own factory from the same cacao beans that the chocolate is made from—they even make their own cocoa butter to add to their chocolate [5]! They sell single-origin chocolate bars from four different locations around the world: the Philippines, Honduras, Ecuador, and Tanzania. Each of these single-origin bars come simply packaged in paper with a piece of string tied at the top. On the paper wrapping, the name of the origin is printed colorfully at the top; below that, a picture of what is presumed to be the cacao farmer that the company works with at that origin location, a description of the chocolate content, and the Askinosie logo. Although I believe that the name of the cacao farmer should be clearly indicated on the front of the packaging with the picture, I also understand that there may be privacy or security reasons that it is not included. Despite this, Askinosie Chocolate does a wonderful job of modestly and honestly packaging their chocolate bars—each of the farmers are presented in as neutral a light as possible, with their skin tones even being edited to match to color of the paper packaging. Their presentation of the cacao farmers involved with their company can be compared to that of the Divine Chocolate company: Although Divine Chocolate has been praised for “refashioning” their cacao farmers to be “Cosmopolitan,” I feel that their advertisements miss the mark [6]. Their portrayal of the female cacao farmers as “glamorous” with tacky labels like “Equality Treat” almost makes it seem like the women are the products, especially considering the common association of chocolate with blackness. The decision of Askinosie Chocolate to include a humble image of their cacao farmers right on their chocolate bar packaging reflects the intimate relationships that they have forged with those farmers—they are more than business partners, they are their friends as well.

A side-by-side comparison of Divine Chocolate’s representation of their cacao farmers (left) versus Askinosie Chocolate’s representation of their cacao farmers (right).

In an industry that has always faced controversy when it comes to ethical concerns in business practices, i.e., slave and child labor and exploitation, it is important for all chocolate companies to have a certain amount of transparency in what they do, especially if they are advertising themselves as being on the right side of ethics. With chocolate companies in particular, transparency is important in several areas—where their beans are coming from, who is growing the cacao and how are they being treated, who is making the chocolate and where that is happening, where the rest of the ingredients are coming from—but it ultimately boils down to (1) the nature of the relationship between the farmer, the producer, and the buyer and (2) how the chocolate is being presented and why that is the case. With one look-through of Askinosie Chocolate’s website, I was incredibly impressed with how transparent they are with their business practices. They make a strong attempt at clearly communicating to their customers what they are doing and what they hope to do every step of the way. For example, as mentioned before, in addition to the “shop” section of their website, there is a clearly labeled “learn” section, where readers can find a lot of information: the story of the founder, Shawn Askinosie, where their cacao comes from, how their chocolate is made, and all of the special initiatives that have been incorporated into their business model. It even includes a lot of information about what direct trade is and why they choose to have that kind of relationship with their farmers. A whole page is dedicated to explaining their precise seventy-step process of chocolate making, from finding the farmers to molding the finished product, complete with a detailed description and a video demonstration for every step. Additionally, they even have a link to the travel blog (http://askinosiechocolate.tumblr.com/ ) that documents all of their journeys to the countries where their cacao originates from, which includes not only pictures of the cacao farmers, but their communities and schools.

Image taken from Askinosie Chocolate travelogue; Caption: “Yoga before business. Me with my Del Tambo, Ecuador farmer friends in the cocoa trees this morning.”

It is these personal accounts that really show that there is a good relationship between the company and the communities that they are building with. These trips aren’t just about business, but also about building friendships, having fun, and sharing knowledge between cultures. For example, on every trip that Askinosie Chocolate goes on, they make sure to host an extensive chocolate tasting for their partners, who may not have that opportunity.

Charles Levkoe argues that food can be a way to understand and learn about the world in which we live, and part of Askinosie Chocolate’s great communication with their customers is also their eagerness to teach and share information [7]. It is built right into their business model to use their proceeds as a producer of high quality chocolate to educate people and battle social issues. Askinosie Chocolate’s Chocolate University initiative embodies this dedication to education and advocacy for social issues: It is an experiential learning program with a worldwide reach for local students, the goal being to use artisan chocolate making to inspire the students to be responsible global citizens and to use business to solve world problems. They involve students from neighboring schools by visiting their classrooms, hosting field trips to the factory, and even visits to cacao origin sites [8]. In addition, they even allow their customers to learn about the story behind the specific bar of chocolate that they purchased by entering a number into their website (see below).

But what has impressed me most about Askinosie Chocolate and what I believe really, truly sets them apart is their willingness to go above and beyond in creating a sustainable chocolate company. For example, they bring direct trade to a whole new level: Not only are they intimately involved with all of the on-site cacao processing, but they help the farmers identify and solve problems and have complete control over the actual importation of the beans (which is rare). They share their profits with the farmers, visiting them and paying them directly, and even share and explain their financial statements with the farmers, so that they understand exactly why they are receiving the amount that they are [9]. Levkoe also emphasizes that there has been an increasing focus on people as consumers, rather than citizens, and this has led to the image of our current progress as a civilization to be unsustainable [7]. Askinosie Chocolate combats this unsustainability because they care about the people that they are working with. When asked why they practice direct trade, they respond, “Very few chocolate makers do, after all, and almost none go to the lengths we do to be involved every step of the way. It’s certainly not cheaper, easier or simpler, and it definitely doesn’t carry less financial risk for us. We practice Direct Trade because we think it’s the right way and the best way” [9]. Beyond just the business relationship, Askinosie Chocolate does a considerable amount investing back into the communities in the origin locations. For example, in the Philippines and Tanzania, they have worked with schools to develop a Sustainable Lunch Program, where they sell a product harvested there, sell it domestically, and then return one hundred percent of the profits to buy lunch for every student every school day [9].

Advertised on the Askinosie Chocolate website home page, Direct Trade is an integral part of their company.

There is much work for our society to do to truly combat the social, economic, and environmental issues that we face today, but I truly believe that Askinosie Chocolate is a leader in this battle. Their reach extends beyond that of the chocolate industry—they are showing that business is not just all about profit, it’s about what you can do with that profit and the ways that you can improve the lives of those who helped you gain that profit. At the end of the day, bettering one community puts us all in a better position to better all of our communities.

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Multimedia Sources

[1] Askinosie Chocolate home page. Digital Image. Available from: https://askinosie.com/. Accessed May 6, 2015.

[2] Cacao farmer representations in advertising. Digital Image. Available from: http://i174.photobucket.com/albums/w104/xlitobabiiangelzpiex/comparison.png. Accessed May 6, 2015.

[3] Askinosie Chocolate travelogue. Digital Image. Available from: http://38.media.tumblr.com/a3312a9a130880a742fd396d66acca29/tumblr_inline_ncom83W4jP1sxcjpi.jpg. Accessed May 6, 2015.

[4] Askinosie Chocolate Choc-o-Lot Number. Digital Image. Available from: https://askinosie.com/. Accessed May 6, 2015.

[5] Askinosie Chocolate Direct Trade. Digital Image. Available from: https://askinosie.com/. Accessed May 6, 2015.

References

[1] Leissle, Kristy. (2013). Invisible West Africa: The Politics of Single Origin Chocolate. Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and Culture, 13(3): 22-31.

[2] United Nations General Assembly (2005). 2005 World Summit Outcome, Resolution A/60/1, adopted by the General Assembly on 15 September 2005. Retrieved on: 2009-02-17.

[3] Our Story – Learn | Askinosie Chocolate. (n.d.). Retrieved May 6, 2015, from https://askinosie.com/learn/our-story.html.

[4] Guthman, Julie. (2013). Fast Food/Organic Food: Reflexive Tastes and the making of ‘Yuppie Chow’. In C. Counihan & P.V. Esterik (Ed.), food and culture (pp. 496-509). New York: Taylor & Francis. (Original work published in 2003).

[5] Chocolate Making – Learn | Askinosie Chocolate. (n.d.). Retrieved May 6, 2015, from https://askinosie.com/learn/chocolate-making.html

[6] Leissle, Kristy. (2012). Cosmopolitan cocoa farmers: refashioning Africa in Divine Chocolate advertisements. Journal of African Cultural Studies, 24(2): 121-139.

[7] Levkoe, Charles Z. (2013). Learning Democracy Through Food Justice Movements. In C. Counihan & P.V. Esterik (Ed.), food and culture (pp. 587-601). New York: Taylor & Francis. (Original work published in 2006).

[8] Chocolate University – Chocolate Farming | Askinosie Chocolate. (n.d.). Retrieved May 6, 2015, from https://askinosie.com/learn/chocolate-university.html

[9] Direct Trade – Chocolate Farming | Askinosie Chocolate. (n.d.). Retrieved May 6, 2015, from https://askinosie.com/learn/direct-trade.html