Tag Archives: The Big Five

Modern Kings: Consumers in the Chocolate Aisle

(https://www.flickr.com/photos /lyza/49545547 )

Grocery stores, supermarkets, food marts, or whatever you call them, the places where millions of Americans get their food each week, are crucial to a vibrant nation.  While their presence influences the economy among many other sectors, this post will examine their relationship with consumer choices.  Modern grocery stores sell much more than food—beverages, hygiene and cleaning supplies, magazines, pharmaceutical goods, alcohol, clothing, gasoline, pet supplies, household items—the list goes on and on.   In 2017, the average number of items carried in a supermarket was over 30,000 (“Supermarket Facts”).  Although there are many products, shelf-space at grocery stores is nevertheless finite, leading to extreme competition among manufacturers to get their products in front of Americans.  After decades of this competition a short list of conglomerates dominate both the grocery store brands and the manufactures that supply them.  These few entities have tremendous influence and are involved in many industries.  An excellent example of this market penetration is the chocolate industry.

Mars, Mondelez, Ferrero, Nestle, and Hershey “dominate the mature markets of Europe and North America” and capture nearly two-thirds of global chocolate market share (Leissle 73-74).  This percentage is staggering, and a quick trip to CVS confirms the dominance.  The image above shows the traditional chocolate selection at the local CVS store in Cambridge, MA and each of The Big Five has a large presence.  Mars brands include Dove, M&M’s, Twix, Milky Way, and Snickers.  The Mondelez brands are Toblerone, Cadbury, and Oreo.  Ferrero surprisingly only has one brand in the pictures which is Butterfinger.  Nestle owns the brands Rolo, Reese’s, KitKat, Crunch, and Raisinets despite some of these brands produced by Hershey here in the United States.  Lastly, Hershey brands are many—Hershey Kisses, Heath, Reese’s, York, Almond Joy, Brookside—just to name a few.  Each of these brands comes in countless varieties and there are over easily several hundreds of bags of chocolate in each store.  So, chocolate is big business, but there is much more to the industry.   Careful analysis of this curated selection of chocolates reveals much more than what meets the eye in an ordinary trip to the grocery store. 

The adventure exploring this multi-faceted industry begins in a surprising place, the non-traditional chocolate selection in the same CVS store.  Aptly titled “Premium Chocolates,” this stand is much smaller and contains more expensive and more exclusive brands.  This premium selection includes only a handful of brands which provide a stark contrast to the brands above.  Ghirardelli, Russell Stover, Whitman’s, and Lindt’s Excellence, are the most prominent and all owned by Lindt & Sprüngli.  Also making an appearance are Ritter Sport, Endangered Species Chocolate, and Turtles.  There are only two Big Five brands—Raffaello and Ferrero Rocher—both which are owned by the company of the same name, Ferrero.  This display encourages the consumer to associate these chocolates with special occasions, luxury, health, romance, extravagance, and celebration, all events worth the companies hope consumers will splurge for.  Intense Dark, Irresistibly Smooth, Salted Caramel Cascade, Hazelnut Heaven, Sea Salt Soiree, Blood Orange Sunset, Raspberry Radiance, Cherry Tango, 90% cacao content, Rainforest Alliance Certified, Non-GMO verified, gluten free, and numerous other slogans and labels all indicate this chocolate is for the advanced palate and educated consumer.  However, more than a label is often needed to convince customers for the surcharge.  Three common avenues of getting higher prices are trade certifications, better cacao quality, and retail product differences.

First, trade certifications are stamps of approval from agencies that generally commit to serving a mission like paying higher cacao prices to farmers, working to end child and forced labor, helping develop community infrastructure in Africa and other cacao-growing regions, and many more.  So many organizations with so many different names and goals pose a difficulty to consumers trying to select which certification is best supporting the industry.  To give an example, one of the most popular is Fairtrade, which is overseen by Fairtrade International.  As Kristy Leissle explains, “Fairtrade International is an intermediary between labeling organizations and producer organizations.  Labeling organizations certify that chocolate companies comply with Fairtrade price terms, and that producer organizations comply with Fairtrade producer terms” (Leissle 141).  These terms touch on working conditions, the environment, sustainability, child labor, discrimination, and more.  The producers who meet these the necessary conditions and pay a certification fee receive a Fairtrade Minimum Prize on all cocoa sold in return.  While it sounds good in theory, issues arise in practice like the price floor not rising quickly enough with inflation and other ingredients in bars not being certified yet taking advantage of the Fairtrade premium.  As one author explains “I do not challenge the sincerity and ambition of [the Fairtrade] approach, nor the purity of its motives,” but she continues and emphasizes that Fairtrade is “the most recent example of another sophisticated ‘scam’ by the ‘invisible hand’ of the free market.  This noble endeavor for the salvation of the free market was tamed and domesticated by the very forces it wanted to fight” (Sylla 18).  Nevertheless, however misguided a consumer’s perceptions may be and despite procedural problems like those raised by Sylla, trade certifications like Fairtrade are working towards higher profits for vulnerable members of the cacao supply chain and are a means for brands to demonstrate why to pay more for chocolate bars. 

Another way these luxury companies convince consumers to pay more for chocolate is the quality or type of cacao, and in this case the classification of the plant species it comes from.  In order to understand this specification, some historical context and geography is provided.  First, criollo, forastero, and trinitario are the three main types.  Criollo is most associated with the original Mesoamerican cacao plants, distinguished by “long, pointed, warty soft, and deeply ridged pods which contain seeds with white cotyledons.”  Forastero is most associated with plants that originated in South American and Africa which have “hard, round, melonlike pods, and the seeds have purplish cotyledons” (Coe & Coe 26).  From this description it follows that criollo cacao is harder to produce, and it is with fewer pods and higher disease susceptibility.  However, with this additional work and higher risk comes a greater reward in the form of better flavor and improved aroma.  This is compared to forastero which is hardier but looks, tastes, and smells different.  In fact, forastero is often translated as “strange” or “foreign” (Leissle 164).  The remaining category, trinitario, is a hybrid of these two varieties that balances the “desirable vigor of the forastero plant with the superior quality of the criollo bean” (Coe & Coe 26).  This simple classification system has faced challenges in recent years as scientific studies claim the existence of many more varieties.  Nonetheless, with this still as the predominant classification, criollo is found only Mesoamerican regions, forasteros mainly in South America and Africa, and trinitarios in North America, South America, Africa, India, and the Philippines/Indonesia region.  For the 2016-2017 season, the African countries of Ivory Coast, Ghana, Cameroon, and Nigeria were forecast to comprise about 71% of world cacao production (Leissle 42).  In addition, it is commonly estimated that forastero provides more than 80% of the world’s cacao crop (Coe & Coe 26).  With its clear production advantage and preference by large cacao conglomerates, forastero thus comprises most of what is known as bulk cocoa.  With this historical context and geographical positioning, it is easy to see how both producers and consumers would pay a premium for criollo chocolate varieties. 

The third means to add value addressed in this post is in the handling of the cacao, the machinery used in processing, or the recipe used to make the retail product.  Once again, it is important to essential to have background knowledge on the industry, from a comprehensive cacao vocabulary to an intricate understanding of the many important steps that lie between the cacao tree to final chocolate bar.  First, there are several important terms to clarify for this post.  These definitions are largely sourced from the 2019 spring semester of the Chocolate, Culture, and the Politics of Food course at Harvard College.  Cacao pods refer to the large and colorful fruits that grow on the trunks of the cacao trees.  The three major types are described in the above paragraph.  The cacao beans are the seeds inside of this pod, covered by the cotyledon which is a white, often sweet, pulp that connects the beans.  The cacao shell or husk is the outer layer of the bean, while the nib is the internal, dried, and fully fermented portion we associate with chocolate.  Chocolate liquor is the what forms from the ground cacao nib.  This liquor has two parts, cocoa butter which is a waxy ivory-colored fat and the cocoa powder which is what remains.  Finally, Dutch-process cocoa refers to the powder if it undergoes alkali treatment to neutralize the harsh acids found in the original cacao.   Also, to briefly review the process, the first step is to have ripe cacao pods on cacao trees.  This is difficult because cacao trees only grow in a range near the equator and it takes roughly five years for a tree to bear fruit.  These ripe pods must be removed carefully to avoid damaging the trunk.  Next, the cacao beans and pulp are removed so that the fermentation process can begin.  This process takes usually takes about a week and often involves several stages.  Fermentation can also occur in a variety of containers, from a makeshift pile of leaves to coolers to wooden boxes.  After this stage is complete, the beans move on to drying which also lasts about 7 days.  The beans are then sorted and bagged before they are transported to the manufacturing facility.  The first step here is to roast the beans and then a process called winnowing where the bean is deshelled, and the cacao nib is separated from the husk.  This nib is ground to form the chocolate liquor and then a hydraulic press extracts the cocoa butter.  One of the final steps before molding and wrapping the bar is conching which aims to evenly distribute the cocoa butter and improve the texture of the chocolate. 

Specialty producers understand the cacao plant and the process and seek high-quality materials or develop mission-driven processes in making unique bars.  The uniqueness and craft can enter at many, nearly all the stages along this supply chain.  Some companies embrace the bean-to-bar model and begin by choosing select cacao pods or varieties, and proceed to oversee fermentation, drying, roasting, and more, customizing every stage until the finished product.  These slight differences can have large impacts on the final taste and other attributes of the bar.  The video above highlights Phil Landers of Land Chocolate, a bean-to-bar company based in London.  Other companies set standards for the bean variety, type and length of fermentation and drying, etc. and then focus on the recipe or the work in the kitchen.  Craft chocolate makers produce far fewer batches or quantities of chocolate and thus tend to focus on fine details more effectively than the commodity cocoa supply chain and companies.  In short, specialty chocolate confectioners try to extract the natural flavors of the bean and experiment with unique processes and flavor combinations, while large companies order beans in bulk and strip all the cocoa down to a uniform powder that can be combined with traditional ingredients (sugar, milk, and butter) to make a consistent, inexpensive, candy staple.  They are nearly two distinct industries, each with its own advantages and disadvantages, connected by the thread of making chocolate.

An examination of Fairtrade, the three types of cacao, and the chocolate-making process provides a better understanding of the differences between the premium chocolate section and the traditional chocolate section in CVS.  The premium section takes advantage of each of these paths while the conventional selection almost exclusively offers Big Five chocolate brands.  While there is insufficient room to analyze the chocolate selections of other specialized, higher-end grocery stores or even chocolate-exclusive shops in this blog post, the differences and the attributes discussed here are likely to be amplified.  With this new enhanced understanding, consumers can now enter the candy aisle with more confidence of what some products are and what they are associated with.  Sidney Mintz suggests a challenge to the conventional “we are what we eat” mantra; “In understanding the relationship between commodity and person, we unearth anew the history of ourselves” (Mintz 211-214).  Knowledge and money are power, and consumers can make choices that will transform industries as we know them, should they choose to.  Maybe one day the conventional chocolate selection will look more like the premium offering in CVS today and the cacao industry will no longer suffer from the many issues it currently battles.  This transformation can start one consumer at a time.  So, the next time you enter the grocery store realize the influence you have.  If you won’t take my word for it, listen to Bill Gates—”When I walk into a grocery store and look at all the products you can choose, I say ‘My God!’ No king ever had anything like I have in my grocery store today” (Kurtz & Boone 72).

Works Cited

Coe, Sophie D., and Michael D. Coe. The True History of Chocolate. 3rd ed., Thames and Hudson, 2013.

Kurtz, David L., and Louis E. Boone. Contemporary Business. South-Western Cengage Learning, 2009.

Landers, Phil.  “Bean to Bar – Meet London’s Single Origin Chocolate Pioneer.” YouTube, Design Milk, 22 Jan. 2018, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3QjYCZ2-xs.

Leissle, Kristy.  Cocoa.  1st ed., Polity Press, 2018.

Lyza.  The New Fred Meyer on Interstate on Lombard, https://www.flickr.com/photos /lyza/49545547

Mintz, Sidney W. Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. Penguin Books, 1986.

“Supermarket Facts.” The Voice of Food Retail, Food Marketing Institute, www.fmi.org/our-research/supermarket-facts.

Sylla, Ndongo Samba. Fair Trade Scandal: Marketing Poverty to Benefit the Rich. 1st ed., Ohio University Press, 2014.

Made with a Feminine Touch: Beth’s Chocolate and the Larger History of Women Creating Chocolate

In the chocolate industry, there are just a handful of companies that produce over 60% of the world’s confections. They are nicknamed ‘the Big Five’ and are as follows: Hershey’s, Mars, Kraft, Nestle, and Ferrero (Martin, Introduction, Slide 5). These companies produce some of the candies we all know and love such as Hershey’s Kisses, Snickers Bars, Cadbury Eggs, and Kit Kats, just to name a few, and they were all founded by men. In fact, they are still run by men with the exception of Hershey’s who just elected its first female CEO in 2017. What does this mean for women? Have they never created chocolate because of gender and cultural barriers, or rather, are they just not recognized at the forefront of its production? In this article, I will argue the latter. Just last month, I had the pleasure to meet Beth Kirsch, a chocolatier in Newton Massachusetts and owner of Beth’s Chocolates. Beth is among a new wave successful female chocolatiers and chocolate producers in the 21st century, but we can find women making chocolate in almost every time period that chocolate has appeared.

Meet Beth

Beth Kirsch had an unusual route to chocolate. She spent the majority of her adult life as a children’s media producer for PBS, winning three Emmy’s for the series Between the Lions (Kirsch, Beth Kirsch Chocolatier). Beth always loved chocolate, however, and one day in 2012, she attempted to mold a chocolate bar into the shape of an Eiffel Tower; it was an utter disaster. The chocolate stuck to the mold, and when it finally did come out, it tasted terrible. Beth immediately decided she would learn to work with chocolate. She enrolled in a three-hour class at ChocoLee Chocolates, and it was here that she learned the process of tempering. A year later, she took a three-month internship at EH Chocolatier in Somerville, and after that, she enrolled in an online course at the Vancouver based Ecole Chocolat to earn a professional chocolatier certificate. Then, in 2016, she traveled to France to become a master chocolatier through the Valrhona Ecole Du Grand (Pyenson). With all this knowledge, Beth was able to make those chocolate Eiffel Towers she had once desired and much more. She decided to launch her own confectionary business from her newly certified kitchen, and thus, Beth’s chocolates began.

Beth is a chocolatier; she does not create her own chocolate from bean-to-bar but buys bars from others to use in her confections. Beth specifically likes to use Valrhona, a fine cacao chocolate brand from France that is known for its exceptional flavor and ethical sourcing (Kirsch, ‘Chocolate Tasting and Seminar’). By melting down these bars, she can add her own additional ingredients, re-mold them, and then decorate them into something else entirely- into Beth’s chocolates. For example, in the image below, you can see one of Beth’s most popular and award-winning bonbons called Fig-In-A-Box. To make this, Beth first creates a fig puree, adds aged balsamic vinegar, transforms the concoction into a French pate de fruit, hand dips it in Valrhona dark chocolate, and finally, brushes it with gold stripes (Kirsch, Chocolates: Fig-in-a-box). The chocolate coating itself may not be her own, but she invents the unique combination of flavors and the delicate design. Some of her other popular bonbons include Pomegranate, Cappuccino, Cognac, Ginger 3 Ways, Passion Fruit, and Salted Dark Caramel. In 2018 alone, Beth’s Chocolates won ten different awards, a huge achievement considering how new her company is (Kirsch, Beth Kirsch Chocolatier).

Beth’s Fig-in-a-box Bonbon (http://www.bethschocolate.com/product/fig-in-a-box/)

 Looking at her path into chocolate, Beth rose to prominence with the help of many women. She first took a class at ChocoLee’s in Boston, which was founded by Lee Napoli, a gifted female pastry chef and former chocolatier. EH Chocolatier, where she interned, is also run by two women, Elaine Hsieh and Catharine Sweeney. In my own conversation with Beth, I asked her about her experience as a female chocolatier (Kirsch, ‘Chocolate Tasting and Seminar’). She explained to me how in France where she once trained, almost all of the chocolatiers are men and the profession is like an exclusive gentlemen’s club. However, in the States and particularly Boston, she has seen an incredible opportunity for women to create chocolate confections for two reasons. Firstly, Beth pointed out how you can become a chocolatier with little to no formal training, although it certainly helps. Secondly, you can become a chocolatier at any time in life, even after pursuing a career in an entirely different field. Indeed, she began experimenting with chocolate confections after working in television for most of her life. Elaine and Catherine from EH Chocolatier had been a doctor and a Harvard administrator respectively. I turned to the FCCI to corroborate Beth’s information and was pleasantly shocked by howmany chocolatiers were women. According to the FCCI website, there are currently fourteen chocolatiers using fine cacao in the United States; of those, nine are independently run by women and an additional two are co-operated by a man and woman duo (Martin, ‘Map’). In the map below, you can see specifically where these various chocolateries are dispersed across the United States; just as Beth had mentioned, many are clumped together in New England- eight out of the fourteen to be exact.  Women’s current role as chocolate creators is not a new one, but rather, a more formalized one. If we turn to the history of chocolate, we can find them creating it in every era and often for men. 

U.S Chocolateries as registered with the FCCI (Me via Mapline)

Turning Back the Clock to Find Women Making Chocolate

In colonial times, women primarily created and served chocolate as a beverage. Chocolate consumption originated in the Olmec civilization, a people who occupied the modern-day Gulf of Mexico from 1400 to 400 BC (Leissle, 29). The practice then spread to the Mayan and Aztecs societies, both of whom enjoyed their chocolate as a drink made from crushed seeds. Farmers would grow, harvest, ferment, dry, and roast the cocoa beans, much like we do today, but from there, a woman would grind the beans on a stone, add water, add additional flavors like corn maize, and finally and most importantly, pour the beverage from one vessel to another in a highly symbolic fashion to produce a foamy head on it (Coe and Coe, Kindle location 872). It could then be served to a prominent Mayan or Aztec, perhaps a king, merchant, or warrior. We can find abundant evidence that women were primarily made these chocolate beverages in much of the art from this time period. For example, the Princeton Vase featured below is a piece of ceramics dated between 670-750 A.D. It depicts a Mayan god sitting on his throne, surrounded by female figures which are assumed to be his concubines. One of these women stands behind him in the bottom right corner of the image, pouring chocolate from one vessel to another to generate the highly desired foam. As captured by this vase, chocolate may have been consumed by mostly men in the Mayan and Aztec societies, but it was women who were responsible for its creation.

The Princeton Vase (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Princeton_Vase#/media/File:God_L_with_the_Hero_Twins.jpg)

In the Baroque Period, women still prepared and served chocolate drinks to men, but now, to European ones. This trend first appeared in New Spain when poor Spanish settlers would often marry native women. When these Aztec housewives would cook for their husbands, they brought many of their customary dishes and ingredients into the kitchen. This often included a chocolate beverage prepared in much same manner it was among their own people, but now, combined with old world spices such as cinnamon and sugar (Coe and Coe, Kindle location 1583). These hybridized drinks were later transported back to Europe, and by the 17th century, some of the first Coffee houses started to appear in England. Despite their name, coffee houses served a variety of foreign, imported beverages, but coffee, tea, and chocolate were the most popular among them (Coe and Coe, Kindle Location 2425). As can be seen in the image below, these were male-dominated spaces where men would convene to talk politics, culture, and most importantly, sip a cup of coffee or chocolate or tea while doing so. However, if you look at the far left side of the image, there is one single woman behind a bar; she is preparing the actual chocolate. So, although women were not welcomed as patrons, they appeared in coffee shops in subtler forms as owners, waiters, or cooks. In fact, 20% of coffee shops during this time were owned and operated by a woman (Cowan, 147). Women helped make chocolate accessible, solidifying and gratifying the European craving for it.

Drawing of a 17th Century Coffee House (https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=752544&partId=1)

Following the Industrial Revolution, women continued to serve chocolate as a beverage while also learning how to incorporate it into new foods. Throughout the 19th century, a variety of new machines were created to transform the cocoa bean into something else entirely. Two of the most important products that emerged from this context were Dutch cocoa powder and solid chocolate bars (Martin, Slides 60-69). A variety of cookbooks and cooking classes soon appeared that attempted to teach women how to bake with these new chocolate varieties. In America, for example, celebrity chef Maria Parloa alongside the Walter Baker Chocolate company published the 1909 pamphlet Chocolate and Cocoa Recipes and Homemade Candy Recipes that detailed a variety of different chocolate preparations from the classics like hot chocolate, chocolate milkshakes, and chocolate pudding, to more unique dishes like chocolate eclairs, cake, cookies and even jelly (Martin, ‘Brownies’). Just a few years prior, another famous chef named Fannie Farmer published her 1906  Boston Cooking School Cookbook that included one of the earliest mentions of brownies (Martin, ‘Brownies’). The recipe, which is included below, called for two squares of Walter Baker’s chocolate as well as chopped walnut meat, something that might surprise a modern audience today. These cookbooks did not just teach women how to prepare chocolate in new ways but encouraged them to serve chocolate more frequently overall. These women were helping to transform chocolate from an occasional indulgence to an ever increasing part of the American diet.

Fannie Farmer’s Brownie Recipe (https://archive.org/details/bostoncookingsch00farmrich/page/n563)

By the late 20th, and early 21st century, artisan chocolate bars began to emerge to differentiate themselves in taste and quality from the Big Five companies; many of these businesses are owned by women. For example, one chocolate that Beth Kirsch herself buys is Castronovo chocolate, founded by Denise Castronovo in 2013 in Florida. Castronovo directly sources fine heirloom cacao beans from South American farmers, and then roasts, winnows, grinds, refines, conches, tempers, and wraps the bars in her own factory packaged under her own last name (Balmaseda). Castronovo is one of the only women to have been recognized at the prestigious International Chocolate Awards, and as of today, she has a staggering 26 awards (Thomson). Another female-run bean-to-bar company is ‘57 Chocolate, founded in 2016 by sisters Kimberly and Priscilla Addison out of Ghana. In the 10-minute interview below, they discuss how they started the company to prove that Ghana is not just a country for growing and exporting cacao beans, but one that can create artisan chocolate itself. They are leading the way in this crusade, sourcing fine beans from local farmers and transforming it from their kitchen into truly Ghanaian chocolate bars (Addison and Addison). In fact, as mentioned in the interview, many of their bars feature different adinkra symbols, which were historically designed and used by indigenous Ghanaian tribes. Female chocolate makers are vastly outnumbered by male ones, but they are nonetheless present all over the world, and more are entering the profession every year.

Kimberly and Priscilla Anderson on ’57 Chocolate (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_0SdUC6ajbU)

Back to Beth: One Woman Among Many

Beth Kirsch is just one example of a woman involved in the chocolate industry, specifically as a self-employed chocolatier. However, she is far from alone. As history has shown, women have always been involved in preparing chocolate, in different places, in different forms, and for different people. These women were often overlooked by society, but they always existed, and as the saying goes, the absence of evidence is not the evidence of absence. Now in the 21st century, we can clearly see more and more women entering the chocolate industry as bean-to-bar makers or chocolatiers. Finally, they have the formal title they lacked for so long. Now, it is the job of other organizations to start recognizing their chocolate, awarding it, and bringing it into public knowledge. As previously mentioned, all of the ‘Big Five’ chocolate companies were started by men, but maybe in the future, we can see the rise of a sixth company, this one run by a woman.

Works Cited

Addison, Kimberly, and Priscilla Addison. “Our Story.” ’57 Chocolate, 2018, http://www.57chocolategh.com/about.

Balmaseda, Liz. “Tiny Chocolate Factory in Stuart Wins Huge International Awards.” Feast Palm Beach, 17 July 2015, feastpb.blog.palmbeachpost.com/2015/07/17/tiny-chocolate-factory-in-stuart-wins-huge-international-awards/.

Coe, Sophie D., and Michael D. Coe. The True History of Chocolate. Thames and Hudson, 2019.

Cowan, Brian. “What Was Masculine About the Public Sphere? Gender and the Coffeehouse Milieu in Post-Restoration England.” History Workshop Journal, vol. 51, no. 1, 2001, pp. 127–157., doi:10.1093/hwj/2001.51.127.

Kirsch , Beth. “Beth Kirsch Chocolatier .” Beth’s Chocolate, 2019, http://www.bethschocolate.com/about/.

Kirsch , Beth. “Chocolate Tasting and Seminar.” Women of Winthrop Speaker Series. Women of Winthrop Speaker Series, 24 Apr. 2019, Cambridge , MA.

Kirsch , Beth. “Chocolates: Fig-in-a-Box.” Beth’s Chocolate, 2019, http://www.bethschocolate.com/chocolates/.

Leissle, Kristy. Cocoa. Polity Press, 2018.

Martin , Carla. “Introduction .” AAAS119x. AAAS119x, 30 Jan. 2019, Cambridge, MA.

Martin, Carla. “Brownies.” US History Scene, 10 Apr. 2015, ushistoryscene.com/article/brownies/. Accessed 30 Apr. 2019.

Martin, Carla. “Map .” Fine Cacao and Chocolate Institute, Fine Cacao and Chocolate Institute, 2019, chocolateinstitute.org/resources/map/.

Martin, Carla. “Sugar and Cacao .” AAA119X. AAA119X, 20 Feb. 2019, Cambridge, MA.

Pyenson, Andrea. “From Children’s Media to Chocolate Making.” BostonGlobe.com, The Boston Globe, 1 Dec. 2015, www2.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/food-dining/2015/12/01/from-children-media-chocolate-making/LIjH0TgDtHhGanjmoZHxYL/story.html.

Thomson, Julie R. “Surprise! Florida Makes Some Of The World’s Best Chocolate.” HuffPost, HuffPost, 3 May 2017, http://www.huffpost.com/entry/best-chocolate-florida_n_59088cf5e4b05c397682bc33.

Multi-Media Works Cited

British Museum. “Interior of a London Coffee-House.” The British Museum, The Trustees of the British Museum, 2019, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details/collection_image_gallery.aspx?partid=1&assetid=290256001&objectid=752544.

Farmer, Fannie. “The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, 1906 .” Internet Archive, Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 2006, archive.org/details/bostoncookingsch00farmrich/page/n563.

Kirsch, Beth. “Fig-in-a-Box.” Beth’s Chocolate, 2019, http://www.bethschocolate.com/product/fig-in-a-box/.

Ostrover, Olivia. “U.S Chocolatiers.” Mapline, 30 Apr. 2019, app.mapline.com/map/map_4f4f4836.

Pyenson, Andrea. “From Children’s Media to Chocolate Making.” BostonGlobe.com, The Boston Globe, 1 Dec. 2015, www2.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/food-dining/2015/12/01/from-children-media-chocolate-making/LIjH0TgDtHhGanjmoZHxYL/story.html.

RAW AFRICA, director. The Two Sisters Reviving Ghana’s Chocolate Market with ’57 Chocolate . YouTube, YouTube, 23 Feb. 2017, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_0SdUC6ajbU&t=204s.

Robicsek, Francis. “Category:Princeton Vase.” Category:Princeton Vase – Wikimedia Commons, University of Virginia Art Museum , 2019, commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Princeton_Vase#/media/File:God_L_with_the_Hero_Twins.jpg.